Duchy of Austria

AustriaAustrianduchyDuke of AustriaDukes of AustriaHabsburg Austriaa duchyAustrian duchyAustrian dukes of the House of HabsburgAustrians
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.wikipedia
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Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg EmpireHabsburgAustria
Thereafter, Austria became the patrimony and ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The formation of the Habsburg Monarchy began with the election of Rudolf I as king of Germany in 1273 and his acquisition of the Duchy of Austria for his house in 1282.

Margraviate of Austria

March of AustriaAustriaMargrave of Austria
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
It became an Imperial State in its own right, when the Babenbergs were elevated to Dukes of Austria in 1156.

Rudolf I of Germany

Rudolph I of GermanyRudolph of HabsburgRudolf I
After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg became extinct in male line, there was as much as three decades of rivalry on inheritance and rulership, until the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg dynasty in 1276.
Originally a Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia, whom he defeated in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld.

Privilegium Minus

his charter by which he elevated Austria to a duchysplit off
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
It included the elevation of the Bavarian frontier march of Austria (Ostarrîchi) to a duchy, which was given as an inheritable fief to the House of Babenberg.

Name of Austria

OstarrîchiOstarrichiMargraviate of Austria
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
In the 12th century, the Margraviate was elevated to the status of duchy, in 1453 to archduchy and from 1804 claiming imperial status, all the time retaining both the name Österreich and the Latin name Austria.

Duchy of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianDukes of Bavaria
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
The eastern March of Austria —roughly corresponding to the present state of Lower Austria— was likewise elevated to a duchy in its own right by 1156.

Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick IIIEmperor Frederick IIIFrederick III of Habsburg
In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III.
Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola from 1424, and also acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria (as Frederick V) from 1439.

Privilegium Maius

self-proclaimed
In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III.
The House of Habsburg had gained rulership of the Duchy of Austria in 1282.

Margraviate of Moravia

MoraviaMargrave of MoraviaMoravian
Drosendorf, Raabs, Laa and other fortifications along the Thaya River, north of the historic Waldviertel and Weinviertel regions and separated by the Manhartsberg range, marked the border with the Duchy of Bohemia (elevated to a Kingdom in 1198) and the Moravian lands, both of which were held by the Czech Přemyslid dynasty.
In the south, the winding Thaya River marked the border with the Duchy of Austria.

Laa an der Thaya

LaaHanfthal
Drosendorf, Raabs, Laa and other fortifications along the Thaya River, north of the historic Waldviertel and Weinviertel regions and separated by the Manhartsberg range, marked the border with the Duchy of Bohemia (elevated to a Kingdom in 1198) and the Moravian lands, both of which were held by the Czech Přemyslid dynasty.
A settlement at a ford across the Thaya existed already in the 12th century, before the estates were acquired by the Babenberg dukes of Austria about 1190.

Duchy

duchiesdukedomdukedoms
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.

Morava (river)

MoravaMorava RiverMarch
In the east, the Imperial border with the Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Slovakia) had gradually shifted towards the plains of the Morava River and the eastern rim of the Vienna Basin.
The lower part of the river, downstream of the confluence with the Thaya at Hohenau an der March, which today marks the Austro-Slovakian border, is one of the oldest national boundaries still extant in continental Europe: it was the eastern boundary of the Carolingian Empire with the Avar Khaganate around 800 and from the 10th century onwards marked the border of the Imperial marcha orientalis, later Duchy of Austria with the Kingdom of Hungary (within the Habsburg Monarchy during 1526–1918 due to the imperial expansion of the Austrian lands).

Leopold I, Margrave of Austria

Leopold ILeopold of BabenbergLeopold I of Austria
In 976 Emperor Otto II enfeoffed the Babenberg count Leopold the Illustrious with the Austrian margraviate.
He was the first margrave of the Babenberg dynasty which ruled the March and Duchy of Austria until its extinction in 1246.

Archduke

ArchduchessArchduchyArchduchess of Austria
In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III.
Originally, it was meant to emphasize the claimed precedence (thus "Arch-") of the Duchy of Austria, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on an even level with the Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire, as Austria had been passed over when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that dignity to the four highest-ranking secular Imperial princes and three Archbishops.

Leopold V, Duke of Austria

Leopold V of AustriaLeopold VLeopold of Austria
For a short time, the Babenbergs came to be one of the most influential ruling families in the Empire, peaking under the reign of Leopold V the Virtous (1177–1194) and Leopold VI the Glorious (1194–1230).
Leopold was the son of the Austrian duke Henry II Jasomirgott from his second marriage with the Byzantine princess Theodora, a daughter of Andronikos Komnenos, the second eldest son of Emperor John II Komnenos.

Leopold VI, Duke of Austria

Leopold VI of AustriaLeopold VILeopold VI the Glorious
For a short time, the Babenbergs came to be one of the most influential ruling families in the Empire, peaking under the reign of Leopold V the Virtous (1177–1194) and Leopold VI the Glorious (1194–1230).
von Österreich, 15 October 1176 – 28 July 1230 ), known as Leopold the Glorious (Luitpold der Glorreiche), was the Duke of Styria from 1194 and the Duke of Austria from 1198 to his death in 1230.

Kingdom of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianBohemian Kingdom
Drosendorf, Raabs, Laa and other fortifications along the Thaya River, north of the historic Waldviertel and Weinviertel regions and separated by the Manhartsberg range, marked the border with the Duchy of Bohemia (elevated to a Kingdom in 1198) and the Moravian lands, both of which were held by the Czech Přemyslid dynasty.
* the Duchy of Austria in 1251, the Duchy of Styria in 1261, the Egerland in 1266, the Duchy of Carinthia with the March of Carniola and the Windic March in 1269, and the March of Friuli in 1272, all acquired by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia but lost to Rudolph of Habsburg in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld;

Conrad III of Germany

Conrad IIIConrad of HohenstaufenKing Conrad III
In 1139, after King Conrad III of Germany deposed the Welf duke Henry the Proud, he gave the Bavarian duchy to his half-brother Margrave Leopold.
With the support of the imperial cities, Swabia, and the Duchy of Austria, Conrad was elected anti-king at Nuremberg in December 1127.

Henry the Lion

Henry III ''the LionHenry XII ''the LionHeinrich der Löwe
At the 1156 Imperial Diet in Regensburg, Henry Jasomirgott had to renounce the Bavarian duchy in favour of Henry the Lion.
However, the East Mark was not returned, which became Austria.

Frederick II, Duke of Austria

Frederick II of AustriaFrederick IIFrederick the Quarrelsome
However, Leopold's son, Duke Frederick II the Warlike, entered into fierce conflicts soon after his accession in 1230, not only with the Austrian nobility, but also with King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, King Andrew II of Hungary and even with Emperor Frederick II for the alleged entanglement in the rebellion of the duke's brother-in-law Henry of Hohenstaufen.
He was the fifth and last Austrian duke from the House of Babenberg, since the former margraviate was elevated to a duchy by the 1156 Privilegium Minus.

Leitha

LajtaLeitha RiverLeitha/Lajta
On the right shore of the Danube, the lower Leitha River marked the Imperial–Hungarian border for centuries.
Around the turn of the 2nd millennium, the Hungarian frontier (Gyepű) ran along the Leitha shore, from 1156 onwards it formed the eastern border of the Duchy of Austria with fortresses erected at Wiener Neustadt, Bruck and Hainburg.

Georgenberg Pact

Austria and Styria
In 1186, they signed the Georgenberg Pact with the first and last Otakar duke Ottokar IV of Styria and, upon his death in 1192, acquired the adjacent Styrian lands in the south, which were ruled with Austria in personal union until 1918.
The first part was an agreement under which the childless and deathly ill Ottokar IV, the first and last Styrian duke from the Otakar dynasty who had contracted leprosy while on the Third Crusade, was to pass his duchy to the Austrian duke Leopold V and to his son Frederick from the Franconian Babenberg dynasty, under the stipulation that Austria and Styria would henceforth remain united forever.

Margaret of Austria, Queen of Bohemia

MargaretMargaret of AustriaMargaret of Babenberg
His son Leopold VI, sole ruler of the Austrian and Styrian lands from 1198, married the Byzantine princess Theodora Angelina and later married his daughter Margaret to Henry of Hohenstaufen, son of Emperor Frederick II, in 1225.
Since 1198 Duke Leopold, according to the Georgenberg Pact, ruled over both the duchies of Austria and Styria.

Gertrude of Austria

GertrudeGertrude of BabenbergGertrud
Referring to the Privilegium Minus, Pope Innocent IV, against the feudal principle of patrilineal inheritance, confirmed the hereditary rights of Frederick's sister Margaret, widow of Henry of Hohenstaufen, and his niece Gertrude, widow of Ottokar's elder brother Přemyslid Margrave Vladislaus of Moravia who died in 1247.
She was, according to the Privilegium Minus the first in line to inherit the Duchies of Austria and Styria after the death of childless Frederick, but these claims were disputed by her aunt Margaret.

Ottokar IV, Duke of Styria

Ottokar IVOttokar IV of Styria
In 1186, they signed the Georgenberg Pact with the first and last Otakar duke Ottokar IV of Styria and, upon his death in 1192, acquired the adjacent Styrian lands in the south, which were ruled with Austria in personal union until 1918.
The young margrave entered into several conflicts with the neighbouring Babenberg dukes of Austria and also with the Spanheim duke Herman of Carinthia.