Duchy of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianDukes of BavariaDuke of BavariaDuchess of BavariaDuchy of Bavaria-DachauBavariansBavaria-DachauBavarian DukeDuchy
The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom from the sixth through the eighth century.wikipedia
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Southern Germany

South GermanySouthernSouth German
The medieval Bavarian stem duchy covered present-day Southeastern Germany and most parts of Austria along the Danube river, up to the Hungarian border which then ran along the Leitha tributary in the east.
That corresponds roughly to the historical stem duchies of Bavaria and Swabia or, in a modern context, to Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg within the Federal Republic of Germany, to the exclusion of the areas of the modern states of Austria and Switzerland.

Electorate of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianElectorate
The Bavarian dukes were raised to prince-electors during the Thirty Years' War in 1623.
The Wittelsbach dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Bavaria was the younger branch of the family which also ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate.

Bavaria

BayernFree State of BavariaBavarian
It included the Altbayern regions of the modern state of Bavaria, with the lands of the Nordgau march (the later Upper Palatinate), but without its Swabian and Franconian regions.
The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555.

Margraviate of the Nordgau

NordgauMarch of the NordgauBavarian Nordgau
It included the Altbayern regions of the modern state of Bavaria, with the lands of the Nordgau march (the later Upper Palatinate), but without its Swabian and Franconian regions.
The Margraviate of the Nordgau (Markgrafschaft Nordgau) or Bavarian Nordgau (Bayerischer Nordgau) was a medieval administrative unit (Gau) on the frontier of the German Duchy of Bavaria.

Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years WarThirty Years’ War30 Years War
The Bavarian dukes were raised to prince-electors during the Thirty Years' War in 1623.
In addition to Habsburg lands, the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate and the Landgraviate of Hesse.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.
Around 900, autonomous stem duchies (Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia, Saxony, and Lotharingia) reemerged in East Francia.

Margraviate of Austria

March of AustriaAustriaMargrave of Austria
The eastern March of Austria —roughly corresponding to the present state of Lower Austria— was likewise elevated to a duchy in its own right by 1156.
Originally under the overlordship of the Dukes of Bavaria, it was ruled by margraves of the Franconian Babenberg dynasty.

Duchy of Austria

AustriaAustrianduchy
The eastern March of Austria —roughly corresponding to the present state of Lower Austria— was likewise elevated to a duchy in its own right by 1156.
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.

Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg

Archbishop of SalzburgArchbishopric of SalzburgSalzburg
Over the centuries, several further seceded territories in the territory of the former stem duchy, such as the County of Tyrol or the Archbishopric of Salzburg, gained Imperial immediacy.
It comprised the secular territory ruled by the archbishops of Salzburg, as distinguished from the much larger Catholic diocese founded in 739 by Saint Boniface in the German stem duchy of Bavaria.

East Francia

East FrankishEast Frankish KingdomEastern Francia
It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.
While the eldest son Lothair I kept the imperial title and the kingdom of Middle Francia, Charles the Bald received West Francia and Louis the German received the eastern portion of mostly Germanic-speaking lands of Duchy of Saxony, Austrasia, Alamannia, Duchy of Bavaria, and March of Carinthia.

Leitha

LajtaLeitha RiverLeitha/Lajta
The medieval Bavarian stem duchy covered present-day Southeastern Germany and most parts of Austria along the Danube river, up to the Hungarian border which then ran along the Leitha tributary in the east.
The Lithaha River in the Carolingian Avar March was first mentioned in an 833 deed issued by Louis the German, son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and ruler over the stem duchy of Bavaria.

Bavarian Circle

Bavarian
From 1500, a number of these Imperial states were members of the Bavarian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.
The most significant state by far in the circle was the Duchy of Bavaria (raised to an Electorate by Emperor Ferdinand II in 1623) with the Upper Palatinate territories.

Agilolfings

AgilolfingAgilolfing dynastyAgilofing
Until the end of the first duchy, all rulers descended from the family of the Agilolfings.
The Agilolfings were a noble family that ruled the Duchy of Bavaria on behalf of their Merovingian suzerains from about 550 until 788.

List of rulers of Bavaria

Duke of BavariaElector of BavariaBavaria
It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (duces) under Frankish overlordship.

Ottonian dynasty

OttonianOttoniansLiudolfing
During internal struggles of the ruling Ottonian dynasty, the Bavarian territory was considerably diminished by the separation of the newly established Duchy of Carinthia in 976.
Elected Rex Francorum in May 919, Henry abandoned the claim to dominate the whole disintegrating Carolingian Empire and, unlike his predecessor Conrad I, succeeded in gaining the support of the Franconian, Bavarian, Swabian and Lotharingian dukes.

Duchy of Saxony

SaxonySaxonDuke of Saxony
In the final conflict between the Welf and Hohenstaufen dynasties, Duke Henry the Lion was banned and deprived of his Bavarian and Saxon fiefs by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
In 911 the East Frankish Carolingian dynasty became extinct with the death of King Louis the Child, whereafter the dukes of Saxony, Swabia and Bavaria met at Forchheim to elect the Conradine duke Conrad I of Franconia king.

Hohenstaufen

House of HohenstaufenStauferStaufen
In the final conflict between the Welf and Hohenstaufen dynasties, Duke Henry the Lion was banned and deprived of his Bavarian and Saxon fiefs by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
Because the Welf duke Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, who had been passed over in the election, refused to acknowledge the new king, Conrad III deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold IV, Margrave of Austria.

Carinthia

KärntenCarinthianAustrian Carinthia
The separation of the Duchy of Carinthia in 976 entailed the loss of large East Alpine territories covering the present-day Austrian states of Carinthia and Styria as well as the adjacent Carniolan region in today's Slovenia.
While initially the Carantanian rulers joined the tribal union of Samo's Empire, Prince Boruth around 743 turned to Duke Odilo of Bavaria to ask for support against the Avar invaders.

County of Tyrol

TyrolTyroleanTirol
Over the centuries, several further seceded territories in the territory of the former stem duchy, such as the County of Tyrol or the Archbishopric of Salzburg, gained Imperial immediacy.
In 1027 Henry's Salian successor, Emperor Conrad II granted the Trent bishops further estates around Bozen and in the Vinschgau region; at the same time he vested the Bishop of Brixen with the suzerainty in the Etschtal and Inntal, part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria under the rule of Conrad's son Henry III.

Regensburg

RatisbonRegensburg, GermanyCastra Regina
The residence of the largely independent Agilolfing dukes was then Regensburg, the former Roman Castra Regina, on the Danube river.
In 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later.

March of Carinthia

CarinthiaCarinthian MarchCarinthian
At around 743, the Bavarian duke Odilo vassalised the Slavic princes of Carantania (roughly corresponding with the later March of Carinthia), who had asked him for protection against the invading Avars.
Before it was a march, it had been a principality or duchy ruled by native-born Slavic (or semi-Slavic) princes at first independently and then under Bavarian and subsequently Frankish suzerainty.

Upper Palatinate

Upper PalatineOberpfalzFutsal-Bezirksliga
It included the Altbayern regions of the modern state of Bavaria, with the lands of the Nordgau march (the later Upper Palatinate), but without its Swabian and Franconian regions.
At the beginning of the High Middle Ages the region now known as the Upper Palatinate was part of the Bavarian March of the Nordgau.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Between 1070 and 1180 the Holy Roman Emperors were again strongly opposed by Bavaria, especially by the ducal House of Welf.

Odilo, Duke of Bavaria

Odilo of BavariaOdiloDuke Odilo
At around 743, the Bavarian duke Odilo vassalised the Slavic princes of Carantania (roughly corresponding with the later March of Carinthia), who had asked him for protection against the invading Avars.
709) whom he succeeded in Thurgau until 736, when with the death of Hugbert of Bavaria the older line of the dynasty became extinct and he inherited the rulership of the Duchy of Bavaria.

Kingdom of Germany

GermanyGermanGerman kingdom
It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.
Early among these were Saxony and Bavaria, which had been conquered by Charlemagne.