Duchy of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianDuchyBohemians medievalBohemian detachmentBohemian DuchyBohemian dukeBohemian stateCzech
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.wikipedia
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Czechs

CzechBohemianCzech people
It was formed around 870 by Czechs as part of the Great Moravian realm.
During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.

Bohemia

BohemianCzechČechy
The Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895.
Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, later an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire.

Přemyslid dynasty

PřemyslidPřemyslidsPřemysl
While the Bohemian dukes of the Přemyslid dynasty, at first ruling at Prague Castle and Levý Hradec, brought further estates under their control, the Christianization initiated by Saints Cyril and Methodius was continued by the Frankish bishops of Regensburg and Passau.
The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.

Spytihněv I, Duke of Bohemia

Spytihněv ISpytihněvPrince Spytihněv I
The Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895. Great Moravia briefly regained control over the emerging Bohemian principality upon Bořivoj's death in 888/890 until, in 895, his son Spytihněv together with the Slavník prince Witizla swore allegiance to the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg.
He was the eldest son of Duke Bořivoj I, the first historically documented Bohemian ruler, and his wife Ludmila.

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IIEmperor Henry IIHenry II of Germany
While the lands were occupied by the Polish king Bolesław I and internal struggles shook the Přemyslid dynasty, Duke Vladivoj received Bohemia as a fief from the hands of the East Frankish king Henry II in 1002 and the duchy became an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire.
Henry II in 1004 aided Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia against the Poles, definitively incorporating the Duchy of Bohemia into the Holy Roman Empire.

Kingdom of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianBohemian Crown
The Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a hereditary Kingdom of Bohemia, when Duke Ottokar I ensured his elevation by the German king Philip of Swabia in 1198.
The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and since 1526 by the House of Habsburg and its successor house Habsburg-Lorraine.

Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia

Boleslaus IIBoleslaus II of BohemiaBoleslaus II the Pious
In 973 the Diocese of Prague was founded through the joint efforts of Duke Boleslaus II and Emperor Otto I.
Boleslaus II took over the rule of the Duchy of Bohemia as kníže (a title that may be translated either as duke or prince) on his father's death in 972.

Bohemians (tribe)

BohemiansBohemianBohemian tribal ruler
The lands encompassed by the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Sudetes and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands were settled by Bohemian tribes about 550.
Their land became recognized as the Duchy of Bohemia around 870.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
While the lands were occupied by the Polish king Bolesław I and internal struggles shook the Přemyslid dynasty, Duke Vladivoj received Bohemia as a fief from the hands of the East Frankish king Henry II in 1002 and the duchy became an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire.
Kingdom of Bohemia (since 1002 as the Duchy of Bohemia and raised to a kingdom in 1198),

Slavník dynasty

SlavníkSlavnik clanSlavnik family
Great Moravia briefly regained control over the emerging Bohemian principality upon Bořivoj's death in 888/890 until, in 895, his son Spytihněv together with the Slavník prince Witizla swore allegiance to the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg.
The Slavniks/Slavníks or Slavnikids (Slavníkovci; Slawnikiden; Sławnikowice) was a dynasty in the Duchy of Bohemia during the 10th century.

Arnulf of Carinthia

ArnulfArnulf of East FranciaKing Arnulf
The Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895. Great Moravia briefly regained control over the emerging Bohemian principality upon Bořivoj's death in 888/890 until, in 895, his son Spytihněv together with the Slavník prince Witizla swore allegiance to the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg.
Yet Arnulf did achieve some successes, in particular in 895, when Duchy of Bohemia broke away from Great Moravia and became his vassal state.

Bořivoj I, Duke of Bohemia

Bořivoj IBořivojBorivoj I
Already in 880, the Přemyslid prince Bořivoj from Levý Hradec, initially a deputy of Duke Svatopluk I who had been baptised by the Great Moravian archbishop Methodius of Salonica in 874, moved his residence to Prague Castle and started to subjugate the Vltava Basin.
His reign over the Duchy of Bohemia is believed to have started about the year 870, but in this era Bohemia was subordinated to Great Moravia.

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto IEmperor Otto IOtto I of Germany
In 973 the Diocese of Prague was founded through the joint efforts of Duke Boleslaus II and Emperor Otto I.
Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, assumed the Bohemian throne in 935.

Vladivoj, Duke of Bohemia

Vladivoj
While the lands were occupied by the Polish king Bolesław I and internal struggles shook the Přemyslid dynasty, Duke Vladivoj received Bohemia as a fief from the hands of the East Frankish king Henry II in 1002 and the duchy became an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire.
When Duke Boleslaus III was dethroned during a revolt by the Czech Vršovci clan, the Bohemian nobles declared Vladivoj, who had earlier fled to Poland, duke in 1002.

Silesia

ŚląskSilesianSchlesien
Assuming the Bohemian throne in 935, Duke Boleslaus conquered the adjacent lands of Moravia and Silesia, and expanded farther to Kraków in the east.
The first known states to hold power there were probably those of Greater Moravia at the end of the 9th century and Bohemia early in the 10th century.

Christianization of Moravia

Christianization
While the Bohemian dukes of the Přemyslid dynasty, at first ruling at Prague Castle and Levý Hradec, brought further estates under their control, the Christianization initiated by Saints Cyril and Methodius was continued by the Frankish bishops of Regensburg and Passau.
A few years later, the nearby Duchy of Bohemia was also converted, with its ruler baptised in 867.

Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia

Boleslaus IBoleslaus I the CruelBoleslav I
Late Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, killed by his younger brother Boleslaus in 935, became the land's patron saint.
915 – 15 July, 967 or 972), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was ruler (kníže, "duke" or "prince") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death.

Henry the Fowler

Henry IHenry I of GermanyKing Henry I
Vratislaus' son Wenceslaus, who ruled from 921, was already accepted as head of the Bohemian tribal union; however, he had to cope with the enmity of his neighbour Duke Arnulf of Bavaria and his mighty ally, the Saxon king Henry I of Germany.
Henry greatly expanded German hegemony in Europe with his defeat of the Slavs in 929 at the Battle of Lenzen along the Elbe river, by compelling the submission of Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia through an invasion of the Duchy of Bohemia the same year and by conquering Danish realms in Schleswig in 934.

Battle of Lechfeld (955)

Battle of LechfeldLechfeld955 (Lechfeld)
As the king's ally his Bohemian troops together with the Kingdom of Germany forces fought in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld and after the defeat of the Magyars received the lands of Moravia in recognition of his services.
As Otto approached Augsburg on 10 August, a Hungarian surprise attack destroyed Otto's Bohemian rearguard legion.

List of Bohemian monarchs

King of BohemiaDuke of BohemiaBohemia
Henry granted him for his support the royal lifetime title and Vratislaus became the first King of Bohemia in 1085.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia. The Duchy of Bohemia was established in 870 and raised to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1212 (although several Bohemian monarchs ruled as non-hereditary Kings of Bohemia beforehand, first gaining the title in 1085).

Poznań

PosenPoznanPosen (Poznań)
In 1039 he invaded Poland, captured Poznań and ravaged Gniezno; after that he conquered part of Silesia including Breslau.
The pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death (probably in Poznań) in 1034 left the region weak, and in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.

Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia

Vratislaus IVratislaus I of BohemiaVratislaus
He and his younger brother Vratislaus then ruled over Central Bohemia around Prague.
Upon the death of his elder brother Spytihněv in 915, Vratislaus became duke at a time when the Bohemian lands around Prague Castle had already distanced themselves from the political and cultural sphere of Great Moravia and fallen under the influence of East Francia, especially during the rule of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria.

Christianization of Bohemia

introduction of Christianityalso convertedChristianization of the population
Christianization of Bohemia
As in many other countries, Christianity was related to the establishment of a new state (first the Duchy of Bohemia, later the Kingdom of Bohemia), and was implemented from the top down.

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Bohemian CrownBohemiaCrown of Bohemia
After the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty, the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were ruled by the House of Luxembourg from 1310, until the death of Emperor Sigismund in 1437.
In the 10th and 11th century the Duchy of Bohemia, together with Moravia (the Margraviate of Moravia from 1182 on), and Kłodzko Land were consolidated under the ruling Přemyslid dynasty.

Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia

JaromírJaromirJaromír of Bohemia
In 1004, after the Poles were had been expelled from Bohemia with help from Henry II, Duke Jaromír received the duchy in fief from the king.
Vladivoj also secured the support of the German king Henry II, when he received the Duchy of Bohemia as a royal fief.