Duchy of Brunswick

BrunswickDuke of BrunswickDukes of BrunswickBraunschweigBrunswick-WolfenbüttelHerzogtum BraunschweigBrunswick-LüneburgBrunswickersDuchess of BrunswickDuke of Braunschweig
The Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state.wikipedia
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Braunschweig

BrunswickBrunswick, GermanyBraunschweig, Germany
Its capital was the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig).
It was the capital city of three successive states: the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1269–1432, 1754–1807, and 1813–1814), the Duchy of Brunswick (1814–1918), and the Free State of Brunswick (1918–1946).

Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Brunswick-WolfenbüttelDuchy of Brunswick-WolfenbüttelBrunswick
It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
As a result of the Congress of Vienna, its successor state, the Duchy of Brunswick, was created in 1815.

Free State of Brunswick

BrunswickBraunschweigBrunswickian
It was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick.
It was formed after the abolition of the Duchy of Brunswick in the course of the German Revolution of 1918–19.

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Brunswick-LüneburgDuke of Brunswick-LüneburgBrunswick
The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.
After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.

German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman states
In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire.

Otto the Mild, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Otto the MildOttoOtto of Brunswick-Göttingen
Otto (24 June 1292 – 30 August 1344), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, called the Mild, ruled over the Brunswick part of the duchy.

Brunswick Palace

Braunschweiger Schlossducal palaceCity Palace, Brunswick
During the night of 7–8 September 1830, the ducal palace in Braunschweig was stormed by an angry mob, set on fire and destroyed completely.
Brunswick Palace (Braunschweiger Schloss or Braunschweiger Residenzschloss) on the Bohlweg in the centre of the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig), was the residence of the Brunswick dukes from 1753 to 8 November 1918.

William, Duke of Brunswick

WilliamWilliam of BrunswickWilliam VIII
When Charles' brother William VIII arrived in Brunswick on 10 September, he was received joyfully by the people.
William, Duke of Brunswick (Wilhelm August Ludwig Maximilian Friedrich; 25 April 1806 – 18 October 1884), was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death.

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover

Prince Ernest AugustusDuke of CumberlandCrown Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover
While William joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation in 1866, his relationship to Prussia was strained, since Prussia refused to recognize Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, his nearest male-line relative, as his heir.
Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884.

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick

Ernest AugustusErnest Augustus III, Duke of BrunswickErnest Augustus, Prince of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick
The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son having died in 1912, the elderly Duke renounced Brunswick in favor of his youngest son, Ernest Augustus, who married Emperor Wilhelm II's daughter, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and renounced all claims to Hanover.
Ernest Augustus (Ernest Augustus Christian George; Ernst August Christian Georg; 17 November 1887 – 30 January 1953) was the reigning Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918.

House of Welf

WelfHouse of GuelphWelfs
The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.
By 1705, the subordinate principalities had taken their final form as the Electorate of Hanover and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and these would become the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick after the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

Charles II, Duke of Brunswick

Charles IICharlesDuke Karl of Brunswick
The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William (who had been killed in action), was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover.
Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (German: Karl II.; 30 October 1804 – 18 August 1873), ruled the Duchy of Brunswick from 1815 until 1830.

War of the Lüneburg Succession

Lüneburg War of SuccessionLüneburg Succession WarLunenburg Succession War
In 1355, the Duke of Lüneburg married his daughter Mechtild to her cousin Louis, the heir to the throne in the Principality of Brunswick, and appointed him as his heir and successor in Lüneburg.

Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987)

Prince Ernest Augustus of HanoverErnest Augustus, Prince of HanoverPrince Ernest Augustus
From his birth until the German Revolution of 1918–1919 he was the Erbprinz (Hereditary Prince) of the Duchy of Brunswick, a state of the German Empire.

Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954)

Ernst August, Prince of HanoverPrince Ernst August of HanoverErnst August
Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (Ernst August Albert Paul Otto Rupprecht Oskar Berthold Friedrich-Ferdinand Christian-Ludwig Prinz von Hannover Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg Königlicher Prinz von Großbritannien und Irland; born 26 February 1954), is head of the royal House of Hanover which held the thrones of the United Kingdom until 1901, of the former Kingdom of Hanover until 1866, and of the sovereign Duchy of Brunswick from 1913 to 1918.

Henry the Peaceful, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Henry the PeacefulHenryHenry "the Peaceful
When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was reorganized in 1428, Henry and his brother swapped Lüneburg for the Principality of Brunswick, including Calenberg.

Prince Albert of Prussia (1837–1906)

Prince Albert of PrussiaPrince Albrecht of PrussiaAlbert of Prussia
Two regents were appointed: first, Prince Albert of Prussia until his death in 1906, and then Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg.
Prince Friedrich of Prussia (Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Albrecht; 8 May 1837 – 13 September 1906) was a Prussian general field marshal, Herrenmeister (Grand Master) of the Order of Saint John from 1883 until his death, and regent of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1885.

Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg

Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg-SchwerinJohn Albert of MecklenburgJohn Albert
Two regents were appointed: first, Prince Albert of Prussia until his death in 1906, and then Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg.
Firstly from 1897 to 1901 he was regent of Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin for his nephew Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, and from 1907 to 1913 he was Regent of the Duchy of Brunswick.

Kingdom of Hanover

HanoverHanoverianKingdom of Hannover
While the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866, the Duchy of Brunswick remained sovereign and independent.
Ernest Augustus was also first in line to the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick, whose rulers had been a junior branch of the House of Hanover.

Bundesrat of Germany

BundesratBundesrat votesFederal Council
The Duke of Cumberland then proclaimed himself Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick. However, since he still claimed to be the rightful King of Hanover, the Federal Council ruled that he would violate the peace of the German Empire if he succeeded to Brunswick.

Province of Saxony

SaxonyPrussian Saxony10. Magdeburg
The Duchy of Brunswick was almost entirely surrounded by the Prussian Provinces of Hanover and Saxony, in the south-east it also bordered the Duchy of Anhalt and in the west the Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont and the Prussian Province of Westphalia.
The province was bounded by the Electorate of Hesse (the province of Hesse-Nassau after 1866), the Kingdom of Hanover (the province of Hanover after 1866) and the Duchy of Brunswick to the west, Hanover (again) to the north, Brandenburg to the north and east, Silesia to the south-east, and the rump kingdom of Saxony and the small Ernestine duchies to the south.

Battle of Quatre Bras

Quatre BrasQuatre-BrasBattle of Quatre-Bras
As the day wore on, fresh Dutch, British and Brunswickers arrived faster than fresh French troops (who eventually numbered about 24,000).

Blankenburg (Harz)

BlankenburgBlankenburg am HarzBarocke Gärten
The southern part with the town of Blankenburg was located in the Harz mountains.
The dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg turned the place into a secondary residence in the 17th century and it enjoyed its heyday under Duke Louis Rudolf (1690–1731), the second son of Anthony Ulrich of Wolfenbüttel.

Austro-Prussian War

War of 1866Seven Weeks' WarAustro-Prussian
Some of the northern German states joined Prussia, in particular Oldenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Brunswick.

Holzminden

Holzminden districtAllersheimBevern
From the 16th century until 1942, Holzminden therefore lay within Brunswick-Lüneburg.