Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

BrunswickBrunswick-LüneburgDuke of Brunswick-LüneburgDukes of Brunswick-LüneburgBrunswick and LüneburgDuke of Brunswick and LüneburgHanoverBraunschweig-LüneburgBrunswick and LunenburgBrunswick and Lunenburgian
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.wikipedia
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House of Hanover

HanoverianHanoverHanoverians
In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837.
The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692.

Braunschweig

BrunswickBraunschweig (Brunswick)City of Braunschweig
Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.
Although formally one of the residences of the rulers of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire, Braunschweig was de facto ruled independently by a powerful class of patricians and the guilds throughout much of the Late Middle Ages and the Early modern period.

Duchy of Saxony

SaxonySaxonDuke of Saxony
The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion.
Upon the deposition of the Welf duke Henry the Lion in 1180, the ducal title fell to the House of Ascania, while numerous territories split from Saxony, such as the Principality of Anhalt in 1218 and the Welf Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1235.

Duchy of Brunswick

BrunswickDuke of BrunswickBraunschweig
After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.
The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.

Celle

Celle, GermanyCity of CelleEicklingen
The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence.
From 1378 to 1705, Celle was the official residence of the Lüneburg branch of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (House of Welf) who had been banished from their original ducal seat by its townsfolk.

Principality of Lüneburg

LüneburgPrince of LüneburgBrunswick-Lüneburg
Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck.
The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor.

Hanover

HannoverHanover, GermanyHannover, Germany
In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his Residenz.
From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

Ernest II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Ernest IIErnestErnst
In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his Residenz.
Ernest II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1564–1611), was the Prince of Lüneburg from 1592 to 1611.

Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Albert IAlbert the TallAlbert
After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly. From 1291 to 1596 Grubenhagen was an independent principality, its first ruler being Henry the Admirable, son of Albert of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Albert the Tall (, Albrecht der Große; 1236 – 15 August 1279), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 and the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1269 until his death.

Principality of Grubenhagen

GrubenhagenBrunswick-GrubenhagenPrince of Grubenhagen
Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck.
The Principality of Grubenhagen was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled by the Grubenhagen line of the House of Welf from 1291.

George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George WilliamDuke George WilliamDuke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg
After the death of Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1705, King George I inherited the state of Lüneburg with his wife, the Duke's daughter, Sophie Dorothea, later known as the "Princess of Ahlden".
George William Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Principality of Calenberg

CalenbergBrunswick-CalenbergDuke of Brunswick-Calenberg
The Principality of Calenberg-Göttingen, merged under Eric I of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1495.
The Principality of Calenberg was a dynastic division of the Welf duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg established in 1432.

Principality of Göttingen

GöttingenBrunswick-GöttingenPrince of Göttingen
The Principality of Calenberg-Göttingen, merged under Eric I of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1495.
The Principality of Göttingen (Fürstentum Göttingen) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire, with Göttingen as its capital.

Lüneburg

LunenburgLunebergB.156/Luneberg
Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.
Around the year 1235, the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg emerged, ruled by a family whose aristocratic lines repeatedly divided and re-united.

List of Imperial Diet participants (1792)

Imperial DietReichstag1792
In the List of Reichstag participants (1792), the following four subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg had recognized representation:
The Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Elector of Hanover, King of Great Britain)'' (George III)

George II of Great Britain

George IIKing George IIPrince of Wales
George I was followed by his son George II and great-grandson George III.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II. August; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

Brunswick-Bevern

House of Brunswick-BevernBevernBevern line
Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck.
Brunswick-Bevern was a secundogeniture of the Younger House of Brunswick, itself a branch of the House of Welf.

George I of Great Britain

George IKing George IKing George
After the death of Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1705, King George I inherited the state of Lüneburg with his wife, the Duke's daughter, Sophie Dorothea, later known as the "Princess of Ahlden".
George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire.

Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Christian LouisChristian Louis of Brunswick-LüneburgChristian Ludwig
His son Christian Louis and his brothers inherited Celle in 1648 and thereafter shared it and Calenberg between themselves; a closely related branch of the family ruled separately in Wolfenbüttel.
Christian Louis (Christian Ludwig; 25 February 1622 in Herzberg am Harz – 15 March 1665 in Celle) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Otto the ChildOtto IOtto
The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion.
Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (about 1204 – 9 June 1252), a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death.

Congress of Vienna

Vienna CongressTreaty of Vienna1815
After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.
Hanover, then in a personal union with the British crown – Georg Graf zu Münster. (King George III had refused to recognize the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and maintained a separate diplomatic staff as Elector of Hanover to conduct the affairs of the family estate, the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, until the results of the Congress were concluded establishing the Kingdom of Hanover.)

House of Welf

WelfGuelphWelfs
The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion.
Henry the Lion's grandson Otto the Child became duke of a part of Saxony in 1235, the new Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and died there in 1252.

Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen

Henry the AdmirableHenry I of BrunswickHenry I
From 1291 to 1596 Grubenhagen was an independent principality, its first ruler being Henry the Admirable, son of Albert of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Henry I (August 1267 – 7 September 1322), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, called the Admirable (Heinrich der Wunderliche, Henricus Mirabilis), a member of the House of Welf, was the first ruler of the Principality of Grubenhagen from 1291 until his death.

County of Hoya

HoyaCounts of HoyaCount of Hoya
To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
As of 1582, Hoya was bordered by (from the north, clockwise): The City of Bremen, the Archbishopric of Bremen, the Bishopric of Verden, the Lüneburg and Calenberg subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Bishopric of Minden, the County of Diepholz, the Bishopric of Münster, and the County of Oldenburg.

John, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

JohnJohn IJohn of Brunswick-Lüneburg
After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly.
1242 – 13 December 1277), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 until his death.