A report on Greater Poland and Duchy of Warsaw

A map of Greater Poland/Great Poland during Piast period from the Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, based on data from historical documents
The Duchy of Warsaw in 1812
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Greater Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in violet.
Prince Józef Poniatowski, Commander in Chief of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, by Josef Grassi
Poznań Town Hall
The Duchy of Warsaw in 1812
Palace of the Raczyński family in Rogalin, within the Rogalin Landscape Park
Polish uhlans from the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815. Painting by January Suchodolski
Gniezno cathedral
Map of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1809
Kalisz Town Hall
Map of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1809–1815
Leszno town hall
Napoleon conferring the Constitution in 1807
Marian sanctuary in Licheń near Konin

More successful was the Greater Poland Uprising of 1806, which led to the region's becoming part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw (forming the Poznań Department and parts of the Kalisz and Bydgoszcz Departments).

- Greater Poland

The Kulmerland and Gdansk (Danzig) became part of the Province of West Prussia; the remaining territories (i.e., Greater Poland/Poznań), which covered an area of approximately 29000 km2, were reconstituted into the Grand Duchy of Posen.

- Duchy of Warsaw

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Grand Duchy of Posen

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Part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.

Part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.

The Grand Duchy of Posen (red) in 1848.
The Prussian Province of Posen. Yellow colour: Polish-speaking areas according to German authorities, as of 1905
The Grand Duchy of Posen (red) in 1848.
Grand Duchy of Posen (light blue) after its creation, in 1815

Originally part of the Kingdom of Poland, this area largely coincided with Greater Poland.

After the defeat of Prussia by Napoleonic France, the Duchy of Warsaw was created by the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807.

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures

Partitions of Poland

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The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures
Włodzimierz Tetmajer, Allegory of Dead Poland, St. Nicholas Cathedral, Kalisz
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition, as a protectorate of the Russian Empire (1773–89)
Rejtan at Sejm 1773, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Second Partition (1793)
1793 Russian campaign medal
"A map of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania including Samogitia and Curland divided according to their dismemberments with the Kingdom of Prussia" from 1799
The partition of Poland according to the German–Soviet Pact; division of Polish territories in the years 1939–1941

Frederick II of Prussia was elated with his success; Prussia took most of Royal Prussia (without Danzig) that stood between its possessions in the Kingdom of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, as well as Ermland (Warmia), northern areas of Greater Poland along the Noteć River (the Netze District), and parts of Kuyavia (but not the city of Toruń).

Poland would be briefly resurrected—if in a smaller frame—in 1807, when Napoleon set up the Duchy of Warsaw.

Province of Posen

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Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
1919 German army permit to enter the Polish territory of Posen, just ceded to Poland.
Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
Province of Posen, 1905, Polish-speaking areas according to Prussian census shown in yellow
Regierungsbezirke Posen (pink) and Bromberg (green) and Kreise subdivisions
Language situation in the province of Posen according to the Prussian census of 1910.

Posen was established in 1848 following the Greater Poland Uprising as a successor to the Grand Duchy of Posen, which in turn was annexed by Prussia in 1815 from Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw.

The 29000 km2 area roughly corresponded to the historic region of Greater Poland.

Entrance of Jan Henryk Dąbrowski to Poznań painted by Jan Gładysz

Greater Poland uprising (1806)

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Entrance of Jan Henryk Dąbrowski to Poznań painted by Jan Gładysz

Greater Poland uprising of 1806 was a Polish military insurrection which occurred in the region of Wielkopolska, also known as Greater Poland, against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1795).

The Wielkopolska Uprising was a decisive factor that allowed the formation of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807) and the inclusion of Wielkopolska in the Duchy of Warsaw.

South Prussia 1795–1806

South Prussia

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Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

South Prussia 1795–1806
Map South Prussia (Südpreussen) and the Departments of Posen, Kalisch, and Warschau, 1801-1807

Following Napoleon Bonaparte's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition and a Polish uprising, the territory of South Prussia became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French client state, according to the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit.

the Poznań, Kalisz and Gniezno Voivodeships of Greater Poland;

The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

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International diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.

International diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.

The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna
1. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
 2. Joaquim Lobo Silveira, 7th Count of Oriola
 3.  António de Saldanha da Gama, Count of Porto Santo
 4. 🇸🇪 Count Carl Löwenhielm
 5.  Louis Joseph Alexis, Comte de Noailles
 6.  Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich
 7.  André Dupin
 8.  Count Karl Robert Nesselrode
 9.  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, 1st Count of Palmela
 10.  Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
 11.  Emmerich Joseph, Duke of Dalberg
 12.  Baron Johann von Wessenberg
 13.  Prince Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky
 14.  Charles Stewart, 1st Baron Stewart
 15. 🇪🇸 Pedro Gómez Labrador, 1st Marquess of Labrador
 16.  Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty
 17. Clear.gif  (Recorder)
 18.  Friedrich von Gentz (Congress Secretary)
 19.  Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt
 20.  William Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart
 21.  Prince Karl August von Hardenberg
 22.  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
 23.  Count Gustav Ernst von Stackelberg
Talleyrand proved an able negotiator for the defeated French.
In pink: territories left to France in 1814, but removed after the Treaty of Paris
Italian states after the Congress of Vienna with Austrian-annexed territories shown in yellow
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Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania, 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony, and the western part of the former Duchy of Warsaw; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy.

Russia, however, did not receive the majority of Greater Poland and Kuyavia nor the Chełmno Land, which were given to Prussia and mostly included within the newly formed Grand Duchy of Posen (Poznań), nor Kraków, which officially became a free city, but in fact was a shared protectorate of Austria, Prussia and Russia.

Battle at Miłosław, 1868 painting by Juliusz Kossak.

Greater Poland uprising (1848)

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Unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.

Unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.

Battle at Miłosław, 1868 painting by Juliusz Kossak.
Ludwik Mierosławski
Karl Wilhelm von Willisen
Funeral services held in Posen for commemoration of the fallen (J. Zajączkowski)

While the main fighting was concentrated in the Greater Poland region, fights also occurred in other part of the Prussian Partition of Poland, and protests were held in Polish inhabited regions of Silesia.

The Prussian hold on Polish areas was somewhat weakened after 1807 where parts of its partition were restored to Duchy of Warsaw.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

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Country and a federation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch in real union, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Country and a federation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch in real union, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (green) with vassal states (light green) at their peak in 1619
The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1526.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (green) with vassal states (light green) at their peak in 1619
The Union of Lublin joined the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619.
Sigismund III Vasa was a religious zealot and an enlightened despot who presided over an era of prosperity and achievement. His reign also marked the Commonwealth's largest territorial expansion.
Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (parliment) in the early 17th century
John III Sobieski, victor over the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, wearing the Order of the White Eagle which he established in 1705.
Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Royal Castle in Warsaw was the formal residence of Polish kings after the capital was moved from Kraków in 1596
Crown Tribunal in Lublin was the highest court of appeals in the Kingdom of Poland
Palace of the Lithuanian Tribunal in Vilnius, which exclusively was the highest appeal court for the Lithuanian nobility in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power, the Royal Election of 1573
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
Cereals exports in the years 1619–1799. Agriculture, once extremely profitable to the nobility, became much less so after the mid-17th century.
A historical re-enactor dressed in the Polish Winged Hussars armour
Multi-stage rocket from Artis Magnæ Artilleriæ pars prima by Kazimierz Siemienowicz
Krasiczyn Castle was built between 1580-1631 in the mannerist style.
Wilanów Palace, completed in 1696, exemplifies the opulence of royal and noble residences in the Commonwealth.
Nieborów Palace designed by Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren and built in 1697
Social strata in the Commonwealth's society in 1655. From left: Jew, barber surgeon, painter, butcher, musician, tailor, barmaid, pharmacist, shoemaker, goldsmith, merchant and Armenian
Population density of the Commonwealth per each voivodeship in 1650
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków was built between 1597-1619 by the Jesuit order
Original act of the Warsaw Confederation in 1573, the first act of religious freedom in Europe
First anniversary anthem of the Constitution of 3 May 1791 (1792) in Hebrew, Polish, German and French
Topographical map of the Commonwealth in 1764
Statuta Regni Poloniae in ordinem alphabeti digesta (Statutes of the Polish Kingdom, Arranged in Alphabetical Order), 1563
Grand Marshal of the Crown Łukasz Opaliński portraited with the insignium of his power in the parliament - the Marshal's cane, 1640
Rococo iconostasis in the Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius, designed by Johann Christoph Glaubitz, 1753–1756
18th century amber casket. Gdańsk patronized by the Polish court flourished as the center for amber working in the 17th century.<ref name="gordon_campbell">{{cite book |author=Gordon Campbell |title=The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts |year=2006 |page=13 |publisher=Oxford University Press US |isbn=01-95189-48-5}}</ref>
Stanisław Poniatowski, Commander of the Royal Guards and Grand Treasurer. Painted by Angelika Kauffmann in 1786.
Equestrian portrait of King Sigismund III of Poland, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1624
Tapestry with the arms of Michał Kazimierz Pac, Jan Leyniers, Brussels, 1667–1669
Silver tankard by Józef Ceypler, Kraków, 1739–1745
Example of the merchant architecture: Konopnica's tenement house in Lublin, 1575
Hussars' armours, first half of the 17th century
De republica emendanda (1554) by Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, proposed a deep programme of reforms of the state, society and church.
Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny, the first Polish newspaper published on the orders of Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga in 1661
Title page of Treny (1580) by Jan Kochanowski, a series of elegies upon the death of his beloved daughter, is an acknowledged masterpiece.
A plate from Michał Boym's Flora Sinensis (1656), the first description of an ecosystem of the Far East published in Europe<ref>{{cite book |author1=Gwei-Djen Lu |author2=Joseph Needham |author3=Vivienne Lo |title=Celestial lancets: a history and rationale of acupuncture and moxa |year=2002 |page=284 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=07-00714-58-8}}</ref>
Taurus Poniatovii, constellation originated by Marcin Poczobutt in 1777 to honor the king Stanisław II Augustus<ref>{{cite web |author=Ian Ridpath |url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/poniatowski.htm |title=Taurus Poniatovii - Poniatowski's bull |work=www.ianridpath.com |access-date=2009-05-18}}</ref>
Branicki Palace in Białystok, designed by Tylman van Gameren, is sometimes referred to as the "Polish Versailles."
Pažaislis Monastery in Kaunas, Pietro Puttini, built 1674–1712
Zamość City Hall, designed by Bernardo Morando, is a unique example of Renaissance architecture in Europe, consistently built in accordance with the Italian theories of an "ideal town."<ref name="unesco.org">{{cite web |url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/564 |title=Old City of Zamość |publisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centre |date=2009-09-23 |access-date=2011-09-15}}</ref>
Plafond Allegory of Spring, Jerzy Siemiginowski, 1680s, Wilanów Palace
Łańcut Synagogue was established by Stanisław Lubomirski, 1733.<ref>After a fire had destroyed a wooden synagogue in 1733 Stanislaw Lubomirski decided to found a new bricked synagogue building. {{cite web |author=Polin Travel |url=http://www.jewish-guide.pl/sites/lancut |title=Lancut |work=www.jewish-guide.pl|access-date=2010-09-02}}</ref>
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków was built between 1597-1619 by the Jesuit order
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Vilnius, Pietro Puttini, built 1675-1704

The land routes, mostly to the German provinces of the Holy Roman Empire such as the cities of Leipzig and Nuremberg, were used for the export of live cattle (herds of around 50,000 head) hides, salt, tobacco, hemp and cotton from the Greater Poland region.

The Duchy of Warsaw, established in 1807 by Napoleon Bonaparte, traced its origins to the Commonwealth.