Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Ludwig Ernst van Brunswick-Lüneburg-Bevern
Dutch caricature of the Duke
Ludwig, right, with his Scottish-born successor Robert Douglas, painted in 1786 by Jacobus Vrijmoet

Field-marshal in the armies of the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic, the elected Duke of Courland (1741).

- Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg

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Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War.

Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick
Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Ferdinand's best known victory the Battle of Minden (1759).
″Ferdinand's Gate″ at the entrance to Vechelde palace garden

After Margrave Wilhelm of Brandenburg-Schwedt was killed at Prague in 1744, Ferdinand received command of Frederick the Great's Leibgarde battalion, and at the Battle of Soor (1745) he distinguished himself greatly, especially in the assault of a steep hill, that incidentally was defended by his older brother duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

William V, Prince of Orange

Prince of Orange and the last stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.

Portrait by Henry Bone (1801)
In The Orangerie (1796), James Gillray caricatured William's dalliances during his exile, depicting him as an indolent Cupid sleeping on bags of money, surrounded by pregnant amours
Jacques Firmin Beauvarlet, Portrait of Willem V, Prince of Orange, 1765, engraving
Portrait by Johann Georg Ziesenis (c. undefined 1768–1769)
Willem V and Wilhelmina with their children Louise, William, and Frederick

Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg, from 1759 to 1766, and kept on as a privy counsellor, in accordance with the Acte van Consulentschap, until October 1784;

Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

Duchy in the Baltic region, then known as Livonia, that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a nominally vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and subsequently made part of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom from 1569 to 1726 and incorporated into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1726.

(In White) The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in 1740.
Double-Denar with monogram of Grand Duke Stephen Báthory and the coat of arms of Lithuania, minted in Mitau, 1578
(In White) The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in 1740.
Coin of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia with portrait of Ernst Johann von Biron, coat of arms of Poland and the coat of arms of Lithuania, 1764
Administrative divisions of the Duchy
Greater coat of arms of the Dukes of Courland of the Kettler family
Naval Flag of Courland and Semigallia
German map of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (about 1600)
Jelgava Palace, the main residence of the dukes
Sigismund Augustus King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania incorporates fiefdoms, Duchies of Courland and Semigalia into the Crown in 1569

Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg was selected as Biron's successor on 27 June 1741 with the support of his cousin Maria Theresa of Austria, but while he was in St Petersburg to get this title ratified, Elizabeth of Russia carried out a coup on 6 December 1741 and he lost the title.

Wilhelmina of Prussia, Princess of Orange

The consort of William V of Orange and the de facto leader of the dynastic party and counter-revolution in the Netherlands.

Painting by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein (1789)
Equestrian portrait of Wilhelmina by Tethart Philipp Christian Haag hangs in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam

Duke Louis Ernest was instrumental in arranging the marriage of Prince William V with his niece.

Patriottentijd

Period of political instability in the Dutch Republic between approximately 1780 and 1787.

The civic militia (exercitiegenootschap) of Sneek, gathered on the market square in 1786
William V, c. undefined 1768–1769.
The first page of Aan het Volk van Nederland.
De Post van den Neder-Rhijn
An exercitiegenootschap drill in Utrecht
Quint Ondaatje
Portrait of Frederick III, Prince of Salm-Kyrburg
Jonas Zeuner "Firefight on the Vaartse Rijn". Patriots won the Battle of Jutphaas near Utrecht on 9 May 1787.
Portrait of Sir James Harris, British Ambassador to The Hague (by Caroline Watson, after Joshua Reynolds)
Mock execution of Patriot ex-burgemeester of Bolsward Cornelis van der Burgh at Leeuwarden on 16 May 1789 by Reinier Vinkeles
Mathias de Sallieth Looting of a Patriot's dwelling.
Presentation of the Act of Guarantee by a delegation of the States General to William V on 10 July 1788 at Huis ten Bosch

Power devolved upon regents, first the dowager Princess of Orange, and after her death in 1759, de facto Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who saw even less merit in "democratic" experiments.

William IV, Prince of Orange

Prince of Orange from birth and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 1747 till his death in 1751.

Portrait by unknown artist (1750)
Portrait bust of William by Jan Baptist Xavery, 1733
Portrait of William by Jacques Aved, 1751

William first met Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1747, and two years later appointed him field marshal of the Dutch States Army, which later led to Louis Ernest serving as one of the regents for William's heir.

Dutch States Army

The army of the Dutch Republic.

States-Army Musketeer by Jacob de Gheyn II (1608)

After his early death Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg held the position during the minority of William V.

Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange

The second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort Caroline of Ansbach.

Portrait by Jacopo Amigoni
John Croker's medal of 1732 showing the surviving children of King George II, Frederick, William, Anne, Amelia, Caroline, Mary, and Louisa
Portrait of Princess Anne by Jan Baptist Xavery, 1736
Portrait of Herman van der Mijn by Anna van Hannover
Self-portrait of Anna van Hannover in 1740

She gained all the prerogatives normally held by a hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands, with the exception of the military duties of the office, which were entrusted to Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Officer in the army of the Holy Roman Empire.

Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke

4) Ludwig Ernest of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (25 September 1718 – 12 May 1788) died unmarried.

Brunswick Cathedral

Large Lutheran church in the City of Braunschweig (Brunswick), Germany.

Brunswick Cathedral with Brunswick Lion.
Brunswick Cathedral
South side
Westwork
Central aisle
Romanesque candelabra
Our Lady's Altar (1188)
Secco Paintings in the Crossing
Secco paintings (Christ Pantocrator)
Martyrdom of Thomas Becket, frescoes in Brunswick Cathedral
Crypt of Henry the Lion
Crypt
Imervard's Crucifix

Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1718–1788), his brother, Captain-General of the Dutch Republic from 1750 to 1766