Duke of Marlborough (title)

Duke of MarlboroughDukes of MarlboroughDukedom of MarlboroughDuchess of MarlboroughMarlboroughChurchillpeerageThe Duke of Marlborough6th Duke of Marlborougha wealthy, aristocratic family
Duke of Marlborough is a title in the Peerage of England.wikipedia
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John Churchill, Marquess of Blandford

Jack ChurchillJohn, Marquess of BlandfordLord Churchill
He was pre-deceased by his son, John Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, in 1703; so, to prevent the extinction of the titles, a special Act of Parliament was passed.
He was the heir apparent to the Dukedom of Marlborough – as the only surviving son of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, an accomplished general, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, a close friend of Queen Anne.

Spencer family

SpencerSpencer-ChurchillSpencers
After his older brother's death in 1729, Charles Spencer had already inherited the Spencer family estates and the titles of Earl of Sunderland (1643) and Baron Spencer of Wormleighton (1603), all in the Peerage of England.
Founded in the 15th century, it has spawned numerous aristocratic titles including the extant dukedom of Marlborough, the earldoms of Sunderland and Spencer, and the Churchill barony.

Peerage of England

peerEnglish peerEngland
After his older brother's death in 1729, Charles Spencer had already inherited the Spencer family estates and the titles of Earl of Sunderland (1643) and Baron Spencer of Wormleighton (1603), all in the Peerage of England. Duke of Marlborough is a title in the Peerage of England.

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Sarah ChurchillDuchess of MarlboroughSarah, Duchess of Marlborough
In 1678, Churchill married Sarah Jennings (1660–1744), a courtier and influential favourite of the queen.
Although the new king and queen had awarded Sarah’s husband the title Earl of Marlborough, Sarah and John enjoyed considerably less favour than they had during the reign of James II. The new Earl of Marlborough had supported the now exiled James; and by this time Sarah’s influence on Anne, and her cultivation of high members of the government to promote Anne’s interests, was widely known.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650–1722), the noted military leader.
Soon after their accession, William and Mary rewarded John Churchill by granting him the Earldom of Marlborough and Prince George was made Duke of Cumberland.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
The 7th Duke was the paternal grandfather of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, born at Blenheim Palace on 30 November 1874.
Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family.

Blenheim Palace

BlenheimBlenheim EstateBlenheim Great Park
The 7th Duke was the paternal grandfather of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, born at Blenheim Palace on 30 November 1874.
It is the principal residence of the Dukes of Marlborough, and the only non-royal, non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace.

John Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough

10th Duke of Marlborough10th DukeJohn Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford
With the exception of the 10th Duke and his first wife, the Dukes and Duchesses of Marlborough are buried in Blenheim Palace's chapel.
Prior to inheriting the dukedom in 1934, he was a lieutenant-colonel in the Life Guards.

Baron Churchill (1815 creation)

Baron ChurchillViscountess ChurchillChurchill barony
In 1815, Francis Spencer (the younger son of the 4th Duke) was created Baron Churchill in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
It was created in 1815 for Lord Francis Spencer, younger son of George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough (see Duke of Marlborough for earlier history of the family).

Mary Osborne, Duchess of Leeds

Lady Mary GodolphinMaryLady Mary
Mary Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (1723 – 3 August 1764), born Lady Mary Godolphin, was a daughter of Henrietta Godolphin, née Churchill, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough, and Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin, making her granddaughter to the powerful government trio during the reign of Queen Anne of Great Britain: the famous general and politician John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and his wife Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, through her mother; and Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, through her father.

Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough

9th Duke of MarlboroughDuke of MarlboroughThe Duke of Marlborough
15px Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (1871–1934)
Born at Simla, India, Marlborough was the only son of the then Marquess of Blandford (who succeeded as The 8th Duke of Marlborough in July 1883) and Lady Albertha Frances Anne, daughter of The 1st Duke of Abercorn.

George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough

5th Duke of MarlboroughMarquess of BlandfordMarquis of Blandford
When he died in 1758, his titles passed to his eldest son George (1739–1817), who was succeeded by his eldest son George, the 5th Duke (1766–1840).
Although the Marquess was born and baptised with the name of George Spencer, soon after succeeding to the Dukedom of Marlborough, he had it legally changed on 26 May 1817 to George Spencer-Churchill.

George Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford

George John Godolphin Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of BlandfordGeorge Spencer-ChurchillMarquess of Blandford
(1) George Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford (b. 1992)
He is the heir apparent to the Dukedom of Marlborough.

Bladon

Bladon Churchyard
Most other members of the Spencer-Churchill family are interred in St. Martin's parish churchyard at Bladon, a short distance from the palace.
The parish of St Martin's includes Blenheim Palace, the family seat of the Duke of Marlborough.

John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough

11th Duke of MarlboroughJohn George Vanderbilt Henry Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough11th
The 11th Duke, John Spencer-Churchill died in 2014, having assumed the title in 1972.
His Grace The Duke of Marlborough (1972–2014)

St Martin's Church, Bladon

parish church of Saint MartinSt Martin's ChurchSt Martin, Bladon
Most other members of the Spencer-Churchill family are interred in St. Martin's parish churchyard at Bladon, a short distance from the palace.
The parish of St Martin's includes Blenheim Palace, the family seat of the dukes of Marlborough.

Primogeniture

agnatic primogenitureabsolute primogenituremale-preference primogeniture
However, unlike the remainder to heirs general found in most other peerages that allow male-preference primogeniture, the grant does not allow for abeyance and follows a more restrictive Semi-Salic formula designed to keep succession wherever possible in the male line.
Notable exceptions in England include the Duchy of Lancaster, which is merged with the British Crown (which has included women in inheritance since the 16th century), and the Dukedom of Marlborough, which has included women in inheritance since its establishment in 1702.

Anne Spencer, Countess of Sunderland (1683–1716)

Lady Anne ChurchillAnneAnne Churchill
When Henrietta died in 1733, the Marlborough titles passed to her nephew Charles Spencer (1706–1758), the third son of her late sister Anne (1683–1716), who had married the 3rd Earl of Sunderland in 1699.
The title of Duke of Marlborough passed over from her elder sister Henrietta to her son Charles.

Hereditary peer

Hereditary Peeragewrit of summonswrit
However, unlike the remainder to heirs general found in most other peerages that allow male-preference primogeniture, the grant does not allow for abeyance and follows a more restrictive Semi-Salic formula designed to keep succession wherever possible in the male line.
For example, Parliament amended the letters patent creating the Dukedom of Marlborough in 1706.

Earl of Jersey

Earls of JerseyEarl of Jersey (1697)Baron Hoo
If that were to happen, the Churchill titles would pass to the Earl of Jersey and his family, the heir-male of the 1st Duke's granddaughter Anne Villiers, Countess of Jersey, daughter of Elizabeth Egerton, Duchess of Bridgewater, the third daughter of the first Duke.
The Earls of Jersey are also in remainder of the title of Duke of Marlborough, for being descendants of one of the daughters of his daughters, by primogeniture, and their heirs male of the 1st Duke.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650–1722), the noted military leader.
After outmanoeuvring Marshal Boufflers, he captured Venlo, Roermond, Stevensweert and Liège, for which in December a grateful Queen publicly proclaimed Marlborough a duke.

James Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of Marlborough

Charles James Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of MarlboroughMarquess of Blandford12th Duke of Marlborough, Jamie Spencer-Churchill
The 12th and present Duke is Charles James Spencer-Churchill.
Charles James Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of Marlborough (born 24 November 1955), styled the Marquess of Blandford until 2014 and often known as Jamie Blandford or Jamie Marlborough, is a British aristocrat, peer, and the current Duke of Marlborough.

George Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough

George Charles Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough8th Duke of MarlboroughLord Blandford
15px George Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough (1844–1892)

Earl of Marlborough

Earl of Marlborough (1626)Earl of Marlborough (1689)Baron Ley
The earldom of Marlborough was held by the family of Ley from its creation 1626 until its extinction with the death of the 4th earl in 1679.
The first time in 1626 in favour of James Ley, 1st Baron Ley and the second in 1689 for John Churchill, 1st Baron Churchill the future Duke of Marlborough.

Winston Churchill (Cavalier)

Sir Winston ChurchillWinston ChurchillChurchill
The original arms of Sir Winston Churchill (1620–1688), father of the 1st Duke of Marlborough, were simple and in use by his own father in 1619.
John Churchill (1650–1722) became a famous military commander and was created Duke of Marlborough;