sand dunesand dunesdunescoastal dunescoastal dunedune fieldparabolic dunedune systemdunalsand dune system
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.wikipedia
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beachessand beachsandy beach
Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach.
Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune.

Erg (landform)

ergergsSand Sea
A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes. In the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for almost 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.

Rub' al Khali

Empty QuarterRub Al Khalial-Rubʿ al-K̲h̲ālī
In the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for almost 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m.
The terrain is covered with sand dunes with heights up to 250 m, interspersed with gravel and gypsum plains.

Blowout (geomorphology)

The elongated arms are held in place by vegetation; the largest arm known on Earth reaches 12 km. Sometimes these dunes are called U-shaped, blowout, or hairpin dunes, and they are well known in coastal deserts.
Blowouts are sandy depressions in a sand dune ecosystem (psammosere) caused by the removal of sediments by wind.


Also, the deep roots bind the sand together, and the dune grows into a foredune as more sand is blown over the grasses.
A foredune is a dune ridge that runs parallel to the shore of an ocean, lake, bay, or estuary.

Grey dune

fixed dunes
Young dunes are called yellow dunes and dunes which have high humus content are called grey dunes.
Grey dunes are fixed, stable sand dunes that are covered by a continuous layer of herbaceous vegetation.


A nabkha, or coppice dune, is a small dune anchored by vegetation.
A nabkha, nebkha or nebka is a type of sand dune.

Ammophila (plant)

marram grassAmmophilabeach grass
These pioneer species are marram grass, sea wort grass and other sea grasses in the United Kingdom.
The common names for these grasses include marram grass, bent grass, and beachgrass. These grasses are found almost exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes.

The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes

Bagnold, in The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, suggested that some seif dunes form when a barchan dune moves into a bidirectional wind regime, and one arm or wing of the crescent elongates.
It also discusses the formation and movement of sand dunes in the Libyan Desert.


loess soillössloess soils
Linear loess hills known as pahas are superficially similar.
The form of these loess dunes has been explained by a combination of wind and tundra conditions.


desertsaridhigh desert
Dunes occur in some deserts and along some coasts.
Where sand does occur, it is usually in large quantities in the form of sand sheets or extensive areas of dunes.

Sand dune stabilization

sand dune plantssand dune fixationstabilize
Some countries, notably the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Sri Lanka have developed significant programs of dune protection through the use of sand dune stabilization.
Sand dunes are common features of shoreline and desert environments.


bedformsflow regimeupper plane bed
Dunes move downstream as the upstream slope is eroded and the sediment deposited on the downstream or lee slope in typical bedform construction.
Examples include ripples and dunes on the bed of a river.

Paha (landform)

pahapaha ridgespahas
Linear loess hills known as pahas are superficially similar.
After it came to be understood that loess soil was wind deposited silt, pahas came to be initially interpreted as a kind of sand dune.

Grand Erg Oriental

They dominate the Grand Erg Oriental of the Sahara.
In some types of dunes the slope on the windward side is gradual, on the leeward steep, and such dunes may "roll" forward being blown in the direction of the wind is taking.


cross-beddedcross beddingcrossbedded
Draas are widespread in sand seas and are well-represented in the geological record.
Cross-bedding forms during deposition on the inclined surfaces of bedforms such as ripples and dunes; it indicates that the depositional environment contained a flowing medium (typically water or wind).

Yellow dune

Young dunes are called yellow dunes and dunes which have high humus content are called grey dunes.
Yellow dunes are sand dunes that develop after the first set of embryo dunes appear.

Dry lake

playasalt panalkali flats
Fixed crescentic dunes that form on the leeward margins of playas and river valleys in arid and semiarid regions in response to the direction(s) of prevailing winds, are known as lunettes, source-bordering dunes, bourrelets and clay dunes.
If there is very little water, dunes can form.

Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

Kalahari Gemsbok National ParkKgalagadiKalahari Gemsbok
Khawa dunes in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, the southwesternmost part of Botswana
The terrain consists of red sand dunes, sparse vegetation, occasional trees, and the dry riverbeds of the Nossob and Auob Rivers.


A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in China's Ningxia Province, and similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt.
Winds create prolific sand dunes that peak at more than 100 ft high.

Natterjack toad

natterjack toadsBufo calamitaNatterjack
As for the species, there is a tendency for natterjack toads to breed here.
In England, the toad's sand dune habitat is protected by a number of National Nature Reserves.

Erg of Bilma

Bilma ErgGrand Erg de Bilma
Grand Erg de Bilma in the Ténéré, in northern Niger
The Erg of Bilma is a dune sea (Arabic: erg) in the Ténéré desert region of the south central Sahara Desert.

Tottori Sand Dunes

Sakyusand dunes
Tottori Sand Dunes, Tottori Prefecture, Japan
The Tottori Sand Dunes are sand dunes located near the city of Tottori in Tottori Prefecture, Japan.


The dunes of Sossusvlei in the greater Namib-Naukluft National Park, Namibia
This area is characterized by high sand dunes of vivid pink-to-orange color, an indication of a high concentration of iron in the sand and consequent oxidation processes.

Thar Desert

The dunes in the Thar Desert in India and Pakistan
High velocity winds blow soil from the desert, depositing some on neighboring fertile lands, and causing shifting sand dunes within the desert.