Yaqub Beg
The ruins of a Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk Road
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
The map of Dungan Revolt
Xindian culture era jar with two lug handles uncovered in Gansu, dating to around 1,000 BC
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Battle of the Wei River, painting of the Imperial Qing Court.
The ruins of a gate at Yumen Pass, built during the Jin dynasty (266–420)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Zuo Zongtang in military garment with long court beads, as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu in Lanzhou in 1875
Jiayuguan Fort
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Quarters for Qing troops in Gansu, 1875.
Danxia landform in Zhangye
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
Chinese artillery on a three-wheeled cart
Gates of the provincial government complex in Lanzhou
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
Town of Anxi in the Hexi Corridor, still in ruins in 1875
Farmland in Linxia
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Pro-Qing forces in Gansu in 1875
Shopping mall in Lanzhou
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
Yakub Beg's Dungan and Han Chinese taifurchi (gunners) take part in shooting exercises.
Lanzhou city
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
Remnants of the citadel near Barkul in 1875. In 1865, rebels from Kucha led by Ishaq Khwaja attacked the fort.
A painting of the Buddhist Manjushri, from the Yulin Caves of Gansu, Tangut-led Western Xia dynasty (1038–1227 AD)
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
A mosque official in Hami, 1875.
These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress, located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the Western Jin (280–316 AD).
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Ruins of the Theater in Chuguchak, painting by Vereshchagin (1869–70)
A terracotta warrior from Gansu, with traces of polychrome and gold, from the Tang dynasty (618–907)
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Yakub Beg's "Andijani" 'taifukchi' (gunners)--misspelled on the picture as "taifurchi"
Maijishan Grottoes
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
Fertile fields near Wuwei
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Crescent Lake, Dunhuang
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Qilian Mountains southeast of Jiuquan
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
Terrace farms near Tianshui
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Grasslands in Min County
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Wetland by the Yellow River, Maqu County
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Main hall of a Chan temple of Lanzhou.
Taklamakan Desert
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (Idol) of Lanzhou.
Tianchi Lake
Nanhua Amituo Fo Temple of Chinese Buddhism seen on a hill above the roofs of the Yu Baba Gongbei, a Sufi shrine.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Labrang Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism in Gannan.
Kanas Lake
Village temple in Linxia County.
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Linxia Dongguan Mosque
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Lanzhou Xiguan Mosque
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

The seventh-largest administrative district by area at 453700 km2, Gansu lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus and borders Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province), Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south and Shaanxi to the east.

- Gansu

However, this article refers specifically to two waves of uprising by various Chinese Muslims, mostly Hui people, in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces in the first wave, and then in Xinjiang in the second wave, between 1862 and 1877.

- Dungan Revolt (1862–1877)

Xinjiang also borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai.

- Xinjiang

The province was also the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862–77.

- Gansu

The Dungan Revolt by the Muslim Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups was fought in China's Shaanxi, Ningxia and Gansu provinces and in Xinjiang from 1862 to 1877.

- Xinjiang

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A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934–1935.

Hui people

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East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Chinese-speaking adherents of Islam.

East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Chinese-speaking adherents of Islam.

A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934–1935.
Halal (清真) restaurants offering Northwestern beef lamian can be found throughout the country
The minaret of the Dungan mosque in Karakol, Kyrgyzstan
Dungan mosque in Karakol, Kyrgyzstan
Muslim restaurant in Kunming, Yunnan
A halal (清真) shower house in Linxia City
A fence in Niujie with art depicting the minority ethnicities in China, including the Hui (回族)
Hui people praying in the Dongguan Mosque, Xining
An elderly Hui man.
Muslim restaurant in Xi'an
The Lhasa Great Mosque in Tibet
The Sufi mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi in Linxia City, China.
The Xianxian Mosque in Guangzhou
An ethnic Hui family celebrating Eid ul-Fitr in Ningxia.
Hui men praying in a mosque
Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Kuomintang with Muslim General Ma Fushou.
Ma Jiyuan, a Muslim General, at his wedding with Kuomintang flag.
Ma Bufang and Hui children in Egypt.
Ma Fuxiang
Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum at the Temple of the Azure Clouds in Beijing after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Wen Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and Bai Chongxi. (6 July 1928)
Ma Hetian

Western missionaries who entered Gansu and Shaanxi after the 18th century, on the other hand, considered the Hui in the north-western provinces an ethnic group between the Turkic, Han and Arab peoples.

The study also showed that there is a close genetic affinity among these ethnic minorities in Northwest China (including Uyghurs, Huis, Dongxiangs, Bonans, Yugurs and Salars) and that these cluster closely with other East Asian people, especially in Xinjiang, followed by Mongolic, and Tungusic speakers, indicating the probability of a shared recent common ancestor of "Altaic speakers".

The word (mostly in the form "Dungani" or "Tungani", sometimes "Dungens" or "Dungans") acquired currency in English and other western languages when books in the 1860–70s discussed the Dungan Revolt.


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Landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.

Landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.

The Dongguan Mosque in Qinghai
Oil well in Tsaidam (Qaidam), Qinghai
View of the Qinghai Lake.
China National Highway 109 in Qinghai
The Khoshut Khanate (1642–1717) based in the Tibetan Plateau
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of Nationalist China (right), meets with the Muslim generals Ma Bufang (second from left), and Ma Buqing (first from left) in Xining, Qinghai, in August 1942
Nyenpo Yurtse, Jigzhi County, Qinghai
Riyue Mountain in Qinghai
A Taoist temple dedicated to Jiutian Xuannü on Mount Fenghuang, in Lunmalong village, Duoba, Xining
A Buddhist temple on Riyue Mountain, in Huangyuan County, Xining
Mosques and Chinese folk temples characterising the skyline of Huangyuan County
Rongwo Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in Tongren County
Great Mosque of Duoba, Xining

Qinghai borders Gansu on the northeast, Xinjiang on the northwest, Sichuan on the southeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the southwest.

The Dungan revolt (1862–77) devastated the Hui Muslim population of Shaanxi, shifting the Hui center of population to Gansu and Qinghai.

Lanzhou and the Zhongshan Bridge under construction in 1909 taken by Robert Sterling Clark


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Lanzhou and the Zhongshan Bridge under construction in 1909 taken by Robert Sterling Clark
The West Gate of the old city wall in 1875. It has been demolished, although its busy neighborhood still bears its name.
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan and Baron C. G. E. Mannerheim in Lanzhou, 1908
View on Zhongshan Bridge from Baita Mountain Park
Xiguan Mosque after a Friday prayer
Gansu Provincial Museum
Lanzhou Center commercial complex
Headquarters of UNIDO-ISEC
Lanzhou Railway Station
Lanzhou West Railway Station
Lanzhou BRT
Lanzhou beef noodles
Lanzhou University

Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.

Lanzhou was badly damaged during the Dungan revolt in 1864–1875.

This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Ürümqi, Xinjiang.

Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque of Xi'an, one of China's oldest mosques.

Islam in China

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Islam has been practiced in China since the 7th century CE.

Islam has been practiced in China since the 7th century CE.

Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque of Xi'an, one of China's oldest mosques.
Guang Ta minaret, Huaisheng Mosque. The minaret was built in the 10th century. Photograph from 1860
The tombs of Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun at Mount Lingshan, Quanzhou
Puhaddin Mausoleum complex in Yangzhou
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong of Yuan.
Weizhou Grand Mosque, constructed during the Ming dynasty
Hu Dahai was a Chinese Muslim general of the Hongwu Emperor.
Chinese Muslim explorer and admiral, Zheng He.
Giraffe brought to China, by Zheng He's Treasure Fleet.
The seventh voyage of Zheng He
Depiction of a Central Asian Muslim from Altishahr, during the Qing dynasty
Chinese Muslims during the 1800s by Julien-Léopold Boilly
Pagoda composed of the Shahada and other Islamic prayers; section of an 1845 scroll
1939, Northwest China, Chinese Muslim fighters gather to fight against the Japanese
Dead bodies of the Chinese Hui Muslim Ha family who were slaughtered and raped by the Japanese in Nanjing
An ethnic Hui family celebrating Eid ul-Fitr in Ningxia
Eid al-Adha at Jiangwan Mosque, Shanghai
Muslim, Bonan children
Uyghur Muslims in a livestock market in Kashgar.
99 names of Allah, in Chinese Sini
Chinese Muslim students
Late 19th century map of Hajj pilgrimage routes, by land and by sea, from China to Mecca.
Headquarters of the Islamic Association of China in Beijing
The Niujie Mosque in Beijing
Id Kah Mosque
Locations of Chinese Muslim Sites (2018)
Number of Chinese Muslim Sites per county (2018)
A halal butcher shop at Huxi Mosque in Shanghai
Sini-style Arabic calligraphy of the first Shahada (La 'ilāha 'illā Allāh) at the Great Mosque of Xi'an
A Chinese-Arabic-Xiaoerjing dictionary from the early days of the People's Republic of China

Though Hui Muslims are the most numerous group, the greatest concentration of Muslims are in Xinjiang, which contains a significant Uyghur population.

Lesser yet significant populations reside in the regions of Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai.

The rebellion in Yunnan occurred because of repression by Qing officials, resulting in bloody Hui rebellions, most notably the Dungan revolt, which occurred mostly in Xinjiang, Shensi and Gansu, from 1862 to 1877.


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Kashgar in the Kushan Empire under Kanishka the Great
Camels traversing the old silk road in 1992
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Mosque entrance in old Kashgar
Kashgar road scene, 1870s
Kashgar (c. 1759)
Kalmyk Archer, Kashgar Army in the 1870s
Night interview with Yakub Beg, King of Kashgaria, 1868
A view of the City of Kashgar in 1915
Colonel Mannerheim at the Russian Consulate in Kashgar, 1906
Sign marking previous Russian Consulate in Kashgar
Map of Kashgar (labeled as SU-FU (KASHGAR)) and surrounding region from the International Map of the World (1966)
Map including Kashgar (labeled as Kashi K'a-shih (Kashgar)) (DMA, 1983)
Cafe built on site of old British Consulate-General. Kashgar. 2011
Kashgari Musicians in 1915
Kashgar market
Woman on motorcycle. Kashgar. 2011
Uyghur family with two calves for sale at Kashgar market.
Kashgar's Sunday market.
Kashgar Airport
Kashgar railway station
Map of the region including Kashgar (1893)
thumb|Downtown Kashgar. 2011
Id Kah Mosque
Kashgar minaret at night
The tomb of Afaq Khoja
Mosque next to the tomb of Afaq Khoja.
Mao statue in the city square of Kashgar.
An old Kashgar city street.

Kashgar (قەشقەر) or Kashi is an oasis city in the Tarim Basin region of Southern Xinjiang.

The great Dungan revolt (1862–1877) involved insurrection among various Muslim ethnic groups.

It broke out in 1862 in Gansu then spread rapidly to Dzungaria and through the line of towns in the Tarim Basin.