Dungan language

DungandngCyrillic DungandialectDungan / TunganDungan alphabetfor the DungansHuilinguistic
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.wikipedia
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Hui people

HuiChinese MuslimHui Muslim
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China. Originally, the Dungan, who were Muslim descendants of the Hui, wrote their language in an Arabic-based alphabet known as Xiao'erjing. The Dungan people of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (with smaller groups living in other post-Soviet states) are the descendants of several groups of the Hui people that migrated to the region in the 1870s and the 1880s after the defeat of the Dungan revolt in Northwestern China.
The Hui people (, Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of ethnically Chinese adherents of Islam found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China. Like other Chinese varieties, Dungan is tonal.
The only varieties usually recognized as languages in their own right are Dungan and Taz.

Dungan people

DunganDungansTungan
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
During World War II, some Dungans served in the Red Army, one of them who was Vanakhun Mansuza (Cyrillic Dungan : мансуза ванахун; ) a Dungan war "hero" who led a "mortar battery".

Cyrillic script

CyrillicCyrillic alphabetUzbek Cyrillic
Although it is derived from the Central Plains Mandarin of Gansu and Shaanxi, it is primarily written in Cyrillic and contains loanwords and archaisms not found in other modern varieties of Mandarin.

Gansu

Gansu ProvinceKansuGansu, China
Although it is derived from the Central Plains Mandarin of Gansu and Shaanxi, it is primarily written in Cyrillic and contains loanwords and archaisms not found in other modern varieties of Mandarin. In basic structure and vocabulary, the Dungan language is not very different from Mandarin Chinese, specifically a variety of Zhongyuan Mandarin (not Lan-Yin Mandarin) spoken in the southern part of the province of Gansu and the western part of the valley of Guanzhong in the province of Shaanxi.
Gansu is also a historical home, along with Shaanxi, of the dialect of the Dungans, who migrated to Central Asia.

Beijing dialect

Beijing MandarinBeijingBeijing Mandarin dialect
On the other hand, Dungan speakers like Yasyr Shivaza and others have reported that Chinese who speak the Beijing Mandarin dialect can understand Dungan, but Dungans could not understand the Beijing Mandarin.
Dungan language is a Mandarin derived Sinitic language spoken throughout Central Asia, particularly in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.

Short U (Cyrillic)

ЎShort UЎ ў
It is a Russian-based alphabet plus five special letters: Җ, Ң, Ү, Ә and Ў.
Among the non-Slavic languages using Cyrillic alphabets, ў is used in the Dungan language, Karachay-Balkar language, the Mansi language, and in the Siberian Yupik language.

Schwa (Cyrillic)

Ә Ә Schwa Cyrillic Schwa
It is a Russian-based alphabet plus five special letters: Җ, Ң, Ү, Ә and Ў.
It is currently used in Abkhaz, Bashkir, Dungan, Itelmen, Kalmyk, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur and Tatar.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
Like other Chinese varieties, Dungan is tonal.
Dungan, a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Central Asia, has, since 1927, been written in orthographies that do not indicate tone.

En with descender

ҢCyrillic letter En with descender Ң En with descender
It is a Russian-based alphabet plus five special letters: Җ, Ң, Ү, Ә and Ў.

Xiao'erjing

Arabic alphabetXiaoerjingxiaojing
Originally, the Dungan, who were Muslim descendants of the Hui, wrote their language in an Arabic-based alphabet known as Xiao'erjing.
"original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script, undefined, Xiao'erjing: بٌکٍْ;, Вьnⱬin), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
In basic structure and vocabulary, the Dungan language is not very different from Mandarin Chinese, specifically a variety of Zhongyuan Mandarin (not Lan-Yin Mandarin) spoken in the southern part of the province of Gansu and the western part of the valley of Guanzhong in the province of Shaanxi.

Central Plains Mandarin

Zhongyuan MandarinCentral PlainsZhongyuan
Although it is derived from the Central Plains Mandarin of Gansu and Shaanxi, it is primarily written in Cyrillic and contains loanwords and archaisms not found in other modern varieties of Mandarin. In basic structure and vocabulary, the Dungan language is not very different from Mandarin Chinese, specifically a variety of Zhongyuan Mandarin (not Lan-Yin Mandarin) spoken in the southern part of the province of Gansu and the western part of the valley of Guanzhong in the province of Shaanxi.

Zhje

Җ
It is a Russian-based alphabet plus five special letters: Җ, Ң, Ү, Ә and Ў.
Zhje is used in the alphabets of the Dungan, Kalmyk, Tatar and Turkmen languages.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
The basilects of Gansu/Shaanxi Mandarin and Dungan are largely mutually intelligible; Chinese journalists conversant in one of those Mandarin dialects report that they can make themselves understood when communicating with Dungan speakers.

Arabic script

ArabicPerso-Arabic scriptPerso-Arabic
Originally, the Dungan, who were Muslim descendants of the Hui, wrote their language in an Arabic-based alphabet known as Xiao'erjing.

Iasyr Shivaza

Shivaza IasyrYasir ShiwazaYasir Shiwazi
On the other hand, Dungan speakers like Yasyr Shivaza and others have reported that Chinese who speak the Beijing Mandarin dialect can understand Dungan, but Dungans could not understand the Beijing Mandarin.
His name in the Dungan language was Ясыр Шывазы (pronounced ) and the corresponding name in Mandarin is Yǎsī'ěr Shíwázi (雅斯尔·十娃子 in Simplified Chinese, 雅斯爾·十娃子 in Traditional Chinese, pronounced ).

Cyrillization of Chinese

Palladius systemcyrillicizing Mandarin ChineseCyrillisation of Chinese
As such, it differs somewhat from the Palladius System that is normally used in Russia to write Chinese in Cyrillic.

Kazakhstan

KAZKazakhRepublic of Kazakhstan
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China. The Dungan people of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (with smaller groups living in other post-Soviet states) are the descendants of several groups of the Hui people that migrated to the region in the 1870s and the 1880s after the defeat of the Dungan revolt in Northwestern China.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyz RepublicKyrgyzKyrghyzstan
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China. The Dungan people of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (with smaller groups living in other post-Soviet states) are the descendants of several groups of the Hui people that migrated to the region in the 1870s and the 1880s after the defeat of the Dungan revolt in Northwestern China.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Dungan language ( or ) is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.

Shaanxi

Shaanxi ProvinceShensiShǎnxī
Although it is derived from the Central Plains Mandarin of Gansu and Shaanxi, it is primarily written in Cyrillic and contains loanwords and archaisms not found in other modern varieties of Mandarin. In basic structure and vocabulary, the Dungan language is not very different from Mandarin Chinese, specifically a variety of Zhongyuan Mandarin (not Lan-Yin Mandarin) spoken in the southern part of the province of Gansu and the western part of the valley of Guanzhong in the province of Shaanxi.

Dungan Revolt (1862–1877)

Dungan revoltDungan Revolt (1862–77)Muslim Rebellion
The Dungan people of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (with smaller groups living in other post-Soviet states) are the descendants of several groups of the Hui people that migrated to the region in the 1870s and the 1880s after the defeat of the Dungan revolt in Northwestern China.

Turkic peoples

TurkicTurksTurkish
The Hui of Northwestern China (often referred to as "Dungans" or "Tungani" by the 19th-century western writers as well as by members of Turkic nationalities in China and Central Asia) would normally speak the same Mandarin dialect as the Han people in the same area (or in the area from which the particular Hui community had been resettled).