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Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The small intestine has three distinct regions – the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

Ileum

terminal ileumilealsmall bowel
The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine.
The ileum follows the duodenum and jejunum and is separated from the cecum by the ileocecal valve (ICV).

Stomach

gastricfunduscardia
In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum.
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.

Suspensory muscle of duodenum

ligament of Treitzsuspensory muscle of the duodenumsuspensory muscle
It begins with the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum.
The suspensory muscle of duodenum is a thin muscle connecting the junction between the duodenum, jejunum, and duodenojejunal flexure to connective tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric artery and coeliac artery.

Jejunum

jejunaljejunal diseasesJejunal feedings
The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine. In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. The fourth part, or ascending part, of the duodenum passes upward, joining with the jejunum at the duodenojejunal flexure.
The jejunum lies between the duodenum and the ileum and is considered to start at the suspensory muscle of the duodenum, a location called the duodenojejunal flexure.

Duodenal bulb

bulb
It begins with the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum.
The duodenal bulb is the portion of the duodenum closest to the stomach.

Pylorus

pyloric sphincterpyloricpyloric valve
The first part, or superior part, of the duodenum is a continuation from the pylorus to transpyloric plane.
The pylorus ( or ), or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.

Lesser omentum

lesser
The first part of the duodenum is mobile, and connected to the liver by the hepatoduodenal ligament of the lesser omentum.
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach (hepatogastric ligament) and the first part of the duodenum (hepatoduodenal ligament).

Peritoneum

peritonealintraperitonealparietal peritoneum
The first part of the duodenum lies within the peritoneum but its other parts are retroperitoneal.

Foregut

fore-gutforegut tube
The junction between the embryological foregut and midgut lies just below the major duodenal papilla.
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.

Greater omentum

omentumomentalomentectomy
Greater omentum
The two layers of the greater omentum descend from the greater curvature of the stomach and the beginning of the duodenum.

Major duodenal papilla

duodenal papillapapilla of Vaterpapillose
The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla.
The major duodenal papilla is an opening of the Common bile duct and Pancreatic duct into the duodenum.

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

mesenteric
This part may be compressed between the aorta and SMA causing superior mesenteric artery syndrome.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the overlying superior mesenteric artery.

Gastroduodenal artery

gastroduodenal
Gastroduodenal artery Proximal to the 2nd part of the duodenum (approximately at the major duodenal papilla – where the bile duct enters) the arterial supply is from the gastroduodenal artery and its branch the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
It supplies blood directly to the pylorus (distal part of the stomach) and proximal part of the duodenum, and indirectly to the pancreatic head (via the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries).

Bile duct

biliarybile ductsbiliary duct
Bile duct
The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic duct exits liver and joins → cystic duct (from gall bladder) forming → common bile duct → joins with pancreatic duct → forming ampulla of Vater → enters duodenum

Hepatoduodenal ligament

The first part of the duodenum is mobile, and connected to the liver by the hepatoduodenal ligament of the lesser omentum.
The hepatoduodenal ligament is the portion of the lesser omentum extending between the porta hepatis of the liver and the superior part of the duodenum.

Superior mesenteric artery

superiorSuperior mesentericcranial mesenteric artery
The superior mesenteric artery and vein are anterior to the third part of duodenum. Distal to this point (the midgut) the arterial supply is from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and its branch the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery supplies the 3rd and 4th sections.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.

Duodenojejunal flexure

duodenojejunal junction
The fourth part, or ascending part, of the duodenum passes upward, joining with the jejunum at the duodenojejunal flexure.
The duodenojejunal flexure or duodenojejunal junction is the border between the duodenum and the jejunum.

Retroperitoneal space

retroperitoneumretroperitonealretro-peritoneal organs
The first part of the duodenum lies within the peritoneum but its other parts are retroperitoneal.
the duodenum, except for the proximal first segment, which is intraperitoneal

Pancreatic duct

accessory pancreatic ductmain pancreatic ductaccessory pancreatic duct of Santorini
The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla.
The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater, after which both ducts perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla.

Common bile duct

common bile duct neoplasmsCBDcholedochal
The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla.
When open, the stored and concentrated bile exits into the duodenum.

Midgut

mesenteronmidgut tissuesmidguts
The junction between the embryological foregut and midgut lies just below the major duodenal papilla.
Duodenum (distal half of 2nd part, 3rd and 4th parts)

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

superiorsuperior pancreaticoduodenal arteriesanterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Proximal to the 2nd part of the duodenum (approximately at the major duodenal papilla – where the bile duct enters) the arterial supply is from the gastroduodenal artery and its branch the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is an artery that supplies blood to the duodenum and pancreas.

Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteriesinferior
Distal to this point (the midgut) the arterial supply is from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and its branch the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery supplies the 3rd and 4th sections.
The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery branches from the superior mesenteric artery or from its first intestinal branch, opposite the upper border of the inferior part of the duodenum.

Herophilos

Herophilus of ChalcedonHerophilusHerophilean
The intestinal section was so called by Greek physician Herophilus (c.335–280 B.C.E.) for its length, about equal to the breadth of 12 fingers.
He also named the duodenum, which is part of the small intestine.