Durum

durum wheathard wheatT. durumTriticum durumdurum wheatsdurum'' wheatFlourTriticum compositumwheat
Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.wikipedia
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Semolina

soojiravasuji
This makes durum favorable for semolina and pasta and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid wheats like common bread wheats. Husked but unground, or coarsely ground, it is used to produce the semolina in the couscous of North Africa and the Levant.
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat mainly used in making upma, pasta, and couscous.

Common wheat

bread wheatTriticum aestivumwheat
This makes durum favorable for semolina and pasta and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid wheats like common bread wheats. It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, although it represents only 5% to 8% of global wheat production.
This hybridisation created the species Triticum turgidum (durum wheat) 580,000–820,000 years ago.

Pasta

pasta saucepastasDry Pasta
This makes durum favorable for semolina and pasta and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid wheats like common bread wheats.
Also commonly used to refer to the variety of dishes made with it, pasta is typically made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat. It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form. Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having 4 sets of chromosomes for a total of 28, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes) for a total of 42 chromosomes each.
Most tetraploid wheats (e.g. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. speltoides. The unknown grass has never been identified among now surviving wild grasses, but the closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides. The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection.

Couscous

Cuscuzmaftoulberkoukes
Husked but unground, or coarsely ground, it is used to produce the semolina in the couscous of North Africa and the Levant.
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about 3 mm diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
This makes durum favorable for semolina and pasta and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid wheats like common bread wheats. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat. Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having 4 sets of chromosomes for a total of 28, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes) for a total of 42 chromosomes each. Durum wheat originated through intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization involving two diploid (having 2 sets of chromosomes) grass species: T. urartu (2n=2x=14, AA genome) and a B-genome diploid related to Aegilops speltoides (2n=2x=14, SS genome) and is thus an allotetraploid (having 4 sets of chromosomes, from unlike parents) species.
Wheat, for example, after millennia of hybridization and modification by humans, has strains that are diploid (two sets of chromosomes), tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes) with the common name of durum or macaroni wheat, and hexaploid (six sets of chromosomes) with the common name of bread wheat.

Emmer

emmer wheatdicoccumemmer grain
It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form.
Neighbouring countries also cultivated einkorn, durum and common wheat.

Winter wheat

spring wheathard red winter wheatTurkey Red hard winter wheat
Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having 4 sets of chromosomes for a total of 28, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes) for a total of 42 chromosomes each.
Durum, the hardest wheat, is primarily used for making pasta.

Bulgur

burghulbulghurbulgur wheat
It is also used for Levantine dishes such as tabbouleh, kashk, kibbeh, bitfun and the bulgur for pilafs.
Bulgur (from bulgur; also burghul, from برغل bourghoul, "groats") is a cereal food made from the cracked parboiled groats of several different wheat species, most often from durum wheat.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having 4 sets of chromosomes for a total of 28, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes) for a total of 42 chromosomes each.

Spaghetti

bowl of spaghettispaghetSpaghetti dishes
In the Midwestern United States, durum wheat is used almost exclusively for making pasta products such as spaghetti and macaroni.
Authentic Italian spaghetti is made from durum wheat semolina, but elsewhere it may be made with other kinds of flour.

Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmeal
When ground as fine as flour, it is used for making bread.
Common wheat flour (T. aestivum) is the most employed to elaborate bread. Durum wheat flour (T. durum) is the second most used.

Midwestern United States

MidwestMidwesternAmerican Midwest
In the Midwestern United States, durum wheat is used almost exclusively for making pasta products such as spaghetti and macaroni.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines eight official classes of wheat: durum wheat, hard red spring wheat, hard red winter wheat, soft red winter wheat, hard white wheat, soft white wheat, unclassed wheat, and mixed wheat.

Wheat allergy

Wheatallergic to wheatbaker's asthma
Because durum wheat contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy.
A later study showed that baker's allergy extend over a broad range of cereal grasses (wheat, durum wheat, triticale, cereal rye, barley, rye grass, oats, canary grass, rice, maize, sorghum and Johnson grass) though the greatest similarities were seen between wheat and rye, and that these allergies show cross reactivity between seed proteins and pollen proteins, including a prominent crossreactivity between the common environment rye pollen and wheat gluten.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
Because durum wheat contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy.
Wheat subspecies (such as spelt, durum and Kamut) and wheat hybrids (such as triticale) also induce symptoms of coeliac disease.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form.

Near East

NearNear Easternancient Near
It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form.

Awn (botany)

awnawnsawned
Like emmer, durum wheat is awned (with bristles).

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
This refers to the resistance of the grain to milling, in particular of the starchy endosperm, implying dough made from its flour is weak or "soft".

Endosperm

albuminousexalbuminouskernel
This refers to the resistance of the grain to milling, in particular of the starchy endosperm, implying dough made from its flour is weak or "soft".

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Despite its high protein content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving strength to dough through the formation of a gluten network.

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
Despite its high protein content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving strength to dough through the formation of a gluten network.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Because durum wheat contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Despite its high protein content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving strength to dough through the formation of a gluten network.

Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
Durum wheat originated through intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization involving two diploid (having 2 sets of chromosomes) grass species: T. urartu (2n=2x=14, AA genome) and a B-genome diploid related to Aegilops speltoides (2n=2x=14, SS genome) and is thus an allotetraploid (having 4 sets of chromosomes, from unlike parents) species.