Dutch East India Company

VOCDutchDutch VOCDutch East India Company (VOC)Dutch importsEastEast India CompanyV.O.C.Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC)Dutch East India
The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC) was an early megacorporation, founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early-17th century.wikipedia
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List of works about the Dutch East India Company

One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history
One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works.
The Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC) is one of the most influential and best expertly researched companies/corporations in history.

History of South African wine

first wineHistory of Wine in South AfricaSouth African wine
However, the VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade (especially intra-Asian trade), shipbuilding, both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine.
The early history of South African wine can be traced to the founding of a supply station at the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company.

List of Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements

establish colonies
In its foreign colonies the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies.
The following were trading posts owned by the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, presented in geographical sequence from west to east:

Dutch Empire

DutchDutch coloniesDutch colony
Along with the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC), the VOC became seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire.
The Dutch colonial empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies (mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company) and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815.

Dutch East India Company coinage

its own coins
In its foreign colonies the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies.
The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, often known as VOC) was a chartered company which issued a considerable series of coinage in bronze, silver and gold for its territories in the Far East between 1602 and 1799.

Halve Maen

Half Moonsailedship
To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages such as those led by Willem Janszoon (Duyfken), Henry Hudson (Halve Maen) and Abel Tasman who revealed largely unknown landmasses to the western world.
Halve Maen (Half Moon) was a Dutch East India Company vlieboot (similar to a carrack) which sailed into what is now New York Harbor in September 1609.

Abel Tasman

Abel Janszoon TasmanTasmanAbel Jansen Tasman
To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages such as those led by Willem Janszoon (Duyfken), Henry Hudson (Halve Maen) and Abel Tasman who revealed largely unknown landmasses to the western world.
Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

Batavia, Dutch East Indies

BataviaBatavia/Jakartacolonial Jakarta
In 1619, the Company forcibly established a central position in the Indonesian city of Jayakarta, changing the name to Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).
Batavia became the center of the Dutch East India Company's trading network in Asia.

Swedish East India Company

East India CompanyEast India Co.East Indian
The name 'Dutch East India Company' is used to make a distinction with the [British] East India Company (EIC) and other East Indian companies (such as the Danish East India Company, French East India Company, Portuguese East India Company, and the Swedish East India Company).
The venture was inspired by the success of the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company.

French East India Company

FrenchCompagnie des IndesEast India Company
The name 'Dutch East India Company' is used to make a distinction with the [British] East India Company (EIC) and other East Indian companies (such as the Danish East India Company, French East India Company, Portuguese East India Company, and the Swedish East India Company).
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial Imperial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies.

History of Jakarta

BataviaJayakartaBatavia (now Jakarta)
In 1619, the Company forcibly established a central position in the Indonesian city of Jayakarta, changing the name to Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).
The "old city", close to the sea in the north, developed between 1619 and 1799 during the era of the VOC.

East India Company

British East India CompanyBritishHonourable East India Company
The name 'Dutch East India Company' is used to make a distinction with the [British] East India Company (EIC) and other East Indian companies (such as the Danish East India Company, French East India Company, Portuguese East India Company, and the Swedish East India Company). The VOC also served as the direct model for the organisational reconstruction of the English/British East India Company in 1657.
These Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company (VOC), which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612 (meaning investment into shares did not need to be returned, but could be traded on a stock exchange).

Henry Hudson

HudsonHudson, HenryHendrick Hudson
To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages such as those led by Willem Janszoon (Duyfken), Henry Hudson (Halve Maen) and Abel Tasman who revealed largely unknown landmasses to the western world.
In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.

Willem Janszoon

Willem Janszthe earlier Dutch explorer of the same nameWillem Janssen
To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages such as those led by Willem Janszoon (Duyfken), Henry Hudson (Halve Maen) and Abel Tasman who revealed largely unknown landmasses to the western world.
Janszoon is first recorded as entering into the service of the Oude compagnie, one of the predecessors of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), in 1598 as a mate aboard the Hollandia, part of the second fleet under Jacob Cornelisz. van Neck, dispatched by the Dutch to the Dutch East Indies.

Governorate of Ambon

AmbonGovernor of AmboinaAmboina
VOC headquarters were located in Ambon during the tenures of the first three Governors General (1610–1619), but it was not a satisfactory location.
Ambon was a governorate of the Dutch East India Company, consisting of Ambon Island and ten neighbouring islands.

Santa Catarina (ship)

Santa CatarinaSanta Catarina'' (ship)Santa Catarina Portuguese carrack
In February 1603, the Company seized the Santa Catarina, a 1500-ton Portuguese merchant carrack, off the coast of Singapore.
Santa Catarina was a Portuguese merchant ship, a 1500-ton carrack, that was seized by the Dutch East India Company (also known as V.O.C) during February 1603 off Singapore.

Portuguese East India Company

PortugueseCompanhia do commércio da ÍndiaEast India companies
The name 'Dutch East India Company' is used to make a distinction with the [British] East India Company (EIC) and other East Indian companies (such as the Danish East India Company, French East India Company, Portuguese East India Company, and the Swedish East India Company).
The Portuguese East India Company (Companhia do commércio da Índia or Companhia da Índia Oriental) was a short-lived ill-fated attempt by Philip III of Portugal to create a national chartered company to look after interests in Portuguese India in the face on encroachment by the Dutch and English following the personal union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns.

Dutch West India Company

WICWest India CompanyWest India companies
Along with the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC), the VOC became seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire.
When the Dutch East India Company (VOC) was founded in 1602, some traders in Amsterdam did not agree with its mono politics.

Voorcompagnie

pre-companyVoorcompagnieënprecursor
The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC) was an early megacorporation, founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early-17th century.
A voorcompagnie (pre-company) is the naming given to the trading companies from the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands that traded on Asia between 1594 and 1602, before they all merged to form the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

Dutch Cape Colony

Cape ColonyGovernor of the Cape ColonyCape of Good Hope
This post later became a full-fledged colony, the Cape Colony, when more Dutch and other Europeans started to settle there.
The Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie) was a Dutch East India Company colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name.

Dutch Malabar

MalabarDutchCochin
To prevent the Portuguese or the English from ever recapturing Sri Lanka, the VOC went on to conquer the entire Malabar Coast from the Portuguese, almost entirely driving them from the west coast of India. Through the seventeenth century VOC trading posts were also established in Persia, Bengal, Malacca, Siam, Formosa (now Taiwan), as well as the Malabar and Coromandel coasts in India.
Dutch Malabar, also known by the name of its main settlement Cochin, was the title of a commandment of the Dutch East India Company on the Malabar Coast between 1661 and 1795, and is part of what is today collectively referred to as Dutch India.

Sino–Dutch conflicts

a war over the Penghu islandsChinesedriven off by Ming forces
When the VOC tried to use military force to make Ming dynasty China open up to Dutch trade, the Chinese defeated the Dutch in a war over the Penghu islands from 1623 to 1624, forcing the VOC to abandon Penghu for Taiwan.
The Sino–Dutch conflicts were a series of conflicts between the Ming dynasty of China and the Dutch East India Company over trade and land throughout the 1620s, 1630s and 1662.

Dutch Bengal

BengalDutch in BengalGovernor of Dutch Bengal
Through the seventeenth century VOC trading posts were also established in Persia, Bengal, Malacca, Siam, Formosa (now Taiwan), as well as the Malabar and Coromandel coasts in India.
Bengal was a directorate of the Dutch East India Company in Bengal between 1610 until the company's liquidation in 1800.

Amboyna massacre

Amboynaa notorious massacreAmboyna judges
This ended with a notorious but disputed incident known as the 'Amboyna massacre', where ten Englishmen were arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch government.
The Amboyna massacre was the 1623 torture and execution on Ambon Island (present-day Maluku, Indonesia) of twenty men, including ten of whom were in the service of the English East India Company, and Japanese and Portuguese traders, by agents of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), on accusations of treason.

Dutch Ceylon

DutchCeylonDutch rule
In 1640, the VOC obtained the port of Galle, Ceylon, from the Portuguese and broke the latter's monopoly of the cinnamon trade.
Dutch Ceylon (Sinhala: ලන්දේසි ලංකාව Landesi Lankava) was a governorate established in present-day Sri Lanka by the Dutch East India Company.