A report on Jakarta and Dutch East Indies

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Batavia around 1780
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
Aerial view of North Jakarta
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
Ancol beach
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Ancol Gondola
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Bank Indonesia head office
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
University of Indonesia campus
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

At one time, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, when it was known as Batavia.

- Jakarta

A capital was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC's Asian trading network.

- Dutch East Indies

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Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area.

Although the Portuguese, the French, and the British also ruled at some point, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies.

Official portrait, 1949

Sukarno

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Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Official portrait, 1949
Sukarno as a HBS student in Surabaya, 1916
Sukarno with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.
Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu.
Sukarno shakes hands with the Japanese director of the Interior for occupied Dutch East Indies, General Moichiri Yamamoto, September 1944
Sukarno during a visit to Makassar, 30 April 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Sukarno addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang, March 1947
Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.
Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta in June 1949
Sukarno (right) with John Foster Dulles (left) and Richard Nixon (center) in 1956.
Sukarno and Nixon in 1956.
Sukarno casting his vote at the 1955 elections
Sukarno (on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959
Sukarno's official portrait used in the 1960s, complete with military-style decorations.
The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962
Sukarno addresses the U.S. Congress on 17 May 1956. Sitting behind him the U.S. vice president/Senate president Richard Nixon and U.S. House speaker Sam Rayburn.
Sukarno and Fidel Castro in 1960, Havana, Cuba
Sukarno (center) with John F. Kennedy (left) and Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in 1961.
Soekarno with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Maxwell Taylor at The Merdeka Palace on August 2, 1963.
Sukarno
Sukarno with Fatmawati and five of their children. Clockwise from center: Sukarno, Sukmawati, Fatmawati, Guruh, Megawati, Guntur, Rachmawati

Sukarno was the leader of the Indonesian struggle for independence from the Dutch colonialists.

The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, which serves the area near Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, still uses the Dutch spelling.

Indonesian National Revolution

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Bendera Pusaka, the first Indonesian flag, is raised on 17 August 1945.
Clockwise from the top right:
* Remains of the car of Brigadier Aubertin Walter Sothern Mallaby, where he was killed on 30 October 1945 during the Battle of Surabaya
* A village near Bandung, a number of houses are on fire. Two Indonesian soldiers are visible on the left of the picture.
* Delegations of Indonesia and Netherlands arriving at Linggarjati hill to hold Linggadjati Agreement
* Padang, West Sumatra, after Operation Kraai
* Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta before exilement to Brastagi, North Sumatra
* Queen Juliana of the Netherlands signing the Soevereiniteitsoverdracht (Transfer of Sovereignty) of Indonesia.
Indian and British troops move cautiously along a jungle track round the town of Gresik.
Dutch soldiers in the East Indies, 1946
Destruction in Bandung's Chinese quarter
A soldier of an Indian armoured regiment examines a Marmon-Herrington CTLS light tank used by Indonesian nationalists and captured by British forces during the fighting in Surabaya.
Javanese revolutionaries armed with bamboo spears and a few Japanese rifles, 1946
An old Indonesian couple with Dutch soldiers in a Bren Carrier
A Dutch military column during Operation Product
The Van Mook line in Java. Areas in red were under Republican control.
Two men with rope around their necks are handcuffed by TNI officers in September 1948 in Madiun, Indonesia.
Dutch forces in the East Indies, 1948
Graffiti in Java, 1948: "Freedom is for us Indonesians", "Liberty or Death", "Hollanders go to Hel".
Australia's The Northern Star newspaper regarding the independence of Indonesia date 28 December 1949
The United States of Indonesia, December 1949 – the Republic of Indonesia is shown in red.
Indonesian Vice-president Hatta and Dutch Queen Juliana at the signing ceremony which took place at the Royal Palace of Amsterdam. With the treaty signed, the Dutch officially recognised Indonesian sovereignty.
Memorial to Dutch losses in the war at the Prinsenhof in Delft

The Indonesian National Revolution, or the Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.

It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, and many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it.

Official portrait, 1973

Suharto

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Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Official portrait, 1973
Official portrait, 1993
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, c. 1947
Official portrait of Suharto and Siti Hartinah, c. date unknown
Suharto with his wife and six children, c. 1967
In his office as the head of the Strategic Reserve, c. 1963
President Sukarno (with glasses) 
in Disneyland, c. 1961
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals, 5 October 1965
The Supersemar document transferring the authority to restore security to Suharto in 1966
Suharto taking the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968
Suharto's right-hand man Ali Murtopo, c. 1982
Street art depicting Suharto as the father of development, c. 1985
Official portrait, c. 1983
Official portrait, c. 1988
Suharto and his wife in Islamic attire after performing the hajj in 1991
Official portrait, c. 1998
Suharto reads his resignation speech at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. His vice president and successor, B. J. Habibie, is on his left hand side
Suharto in 1998

Suharto was born in the small village of Kemusuk, in the Godean area near the city of Yogyakarta, during the Dutch colonial era.

As company commander, he conducted training for new PETA recruits in Surakarta, Jakarta, and Madiun.

Photograph, c. 1954

Mohammad Hatta

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Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president.

Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president.

Photograph, c. 1954
Bung Hatta's Birth House which is now located on Sukarno-Hatta street, Bukittinggi
Leaders of Perhimpoenan Indonesia. Left to right: Gunawan Mangunkusumo, Mohammad Hatta, Iwa Kusumasumantri, Sastro Mulyono, and R.M. Sartono
Hatta on a 2002 Indonesian postage stamp
Hatta's home in Bandaneira, currently a museum.
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta, declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Indonesian Vice-president Hatta and Dutch Queen Juliana signing the recognition of sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia

Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Soekarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Dutch.

When he was thirteen, he passed an exam that entitled him to enroll in the Dutch secondary school (HBS or Hogere burgerschool) in Batavia (now Jakarta).

Bali

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Province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Subak irrigation system
Puputan monument
2002 Bali bombings memorial
Aerial photograph of Bali
Mount Agung is the highest point of Bali.
Bali myna is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.
Monkeys in Uluwatu
Uluwatu
Wood carving
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot.
Ogoh-ogoh procession on the eve of Nyepi
I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport
One of the major forms of transport is the scooter.
Bali Mandara Toll Road
Balinese people
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
Holy Spirit Cathedral, Denpasar
Kecak dance
Balinese cuisine
Cremation ceremony in Ubud
Kapten I Wayan Dipta Stadium, the home of Bali United F.C.
The cliff of Nusa Penida with Kelingking beach at the foregound
Detailed map of Bali
Several tourist spot in Bali island, from top left to right: Sunset over Amed beach with Mount Agung in the background, Garuda Wisnu Kencana monument, Tanah Lot temple, view from top of Besakih Temple, scuba diving around Pemuteran, The Rock Bar at Jimbaran Bay, and various traditional Balinese people activities
Trans Sarbagita bus
Pura Ulun Danu Bratan
Kecak dance
Cremation ceremony in Nusa Penida
Melasti, is a Hindu Balinese purification ceremony and ritual
Rejang, A sacred balinesse dance to greet The Gods that come down to the earth on ceremony day
Penataran Lempuyang Temple, Gunung Lempuyang, Bali
Ibnu Batutah Mosque, Kuta
Saint Joseph's Church, Denpasar
Ling Sii Miao Buddhist Temple, Denpasar

The royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia; however, they originated before Dutch colonisation.

Foreign and domestic, many Jakarta individuals and companies are fairly active, investment into other areas of the island also continues to grow.

Batavia around 1780 (note this a mirror image - for example the castle should be placed left of the canal)

Batavia, Dutch East Indies

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Batavia around 1780 (note this a mirror image - for example the castle should be placed left of the canal)
Batavia around 1780 (this image is now in the correct order after horizontally flipping that mirror image - for example, the castle is correctly placed left of the canal)
Batavia between 1675 and 1725
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC).
Coat of arms of Batavia
Batavia and its eastern expansion
The coconut-tree-lined Tijgersgracht canal
Batavia in 1667
Contemporary etching of the massacre
Southern expansion, 1840
Batavia in 1897
Batavia, Weltevreden, Koningsplein, Hotel der Nederlanden c. 1912
Batavia c. 1914
Drawing of the imagined Japanese entry into Batavia
Many coolies and slaves were employed from outside Java.
Trams in Molenvliet

Batavia, also called Batauia in the city's Malay vernacular, was the capital of the Dutch East Indies.

The area corresponds to present-day Jakarta, Indonesia.

Dutch East India Company

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Chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia.

Chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia.

The "United East India Company", or "United East Indies Company" (also known by the abbreviation "VOC" in Dutch) was the brainchild of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading statesman of the Dutch Republic.
Amsterdam VOC HQ
Replica of the VOC ship Duyfken under sail
Founded in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), started off as a spice trader. In the same year, the VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO. "Going public" enabled the company to raise the vast sum of 6.5 million guilders quickly. The VOC's institutional innovations and business practices laid the foundations for the rise of modern-day global corporations and capital markets that now dominate the world's economic systems.
Japanese export porcelain plate (Arita ware) with the VOC's monogram logo
In terms of creating and sustaining an effective corporate identity (or corporate culture), the United East India Company (VOC) was a successful early pioneer at the dawn of modern capitalism.
17th century plaque to Dutch East India Company (VOC), Hoorn
The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC
VOC headquarters in Amsterdam
Return of the second Asia expedition of Jacob van Neck in 1599 by Cornelis Vroom
Mughal Bengal's baghlah was a type of ship widely used by Dutch traders in the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Malacca Straits and the South China Sea
Reproduction of a map of the city of Batavia c.1627, collection Tropenmuseum
Dutch Batavia in 1681, built in what is now North Jakarta
The Isle of Amboina, a 17th-century print, probably English
Graves of Dutch dignitaries in the ruined St. Paul's Church, Malacca, in the former Dutch Malacca
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Dutch settlement in Bengal Subah.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A print of the 1740 Batavia massacre
The Oost-Indisch Huis (Reinier Vinkeles, 1768)
A bond from the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged capital market (including the bond market and the stock market) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.
Various VOC soldier uniforms, c.1783
Both sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC
Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima, Nagasaki (1995)
Ground-plan of the Dutch trade-post on the island Dejima at Nagasaki. An imagined bird's-eye view of Dejima's layout and structures (copied from a woodblock print by Toshimaya Bunjiemon of 1780).
Overview of Fort Zeelandia (Fort Anping) in Tainan, Taiwan, painted around 1635 (National Bureau of Archives, The Hague)
The Dutch Square in Malacca, with Christ Church (centre) and the Stadthuys (right)
Gateway to the Castle of Good Hope, a bastion fort built by the VOC in the 17th century
One of the oldest known stock certificates, issued by the VOC Chamber of Enkhuizen, dated 9 September 1606.  The VOC was the first recorded joint-stock company to get a fixed capital stock. The VOC was also the first publicly listed company ever to pay regular dividends. The VOC was possibly in fact the first ever blue-chip stock. In Robert Shiller's words, the VOC was "the first real important stock" in the history of finance.
A 17th-century engraving depicting the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Amsterdam's old bourse, a.k.a. Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch), built by Hendrick de Keyser (c. 1612). The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser), launched by the Dutch East India Company in the early 1600s, was the world's first official (formal) stock exchange when it began trading the VOC's freely transferable securities, including bonds and shares of stock.
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser) by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The process of buying and selling the VOC's shares, on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, became the basis of the world's first official (formal) stock market, a milestone in the history of capitalism.
Crowd gathering on Wall Street (New York City) after the 1929 crash. The 1929 Wall Street Crash is often considered one of the worst stock market crashes in history. For better or worse, the VOC-created quasi-casino stock market system has profoundly influenced the evolution of the global economy since the Dutch Golden Age.
The Dam Square in Amsterdam, by Gerrit Adriaensz Berckheyde, c. 1660. In the picture of the centre of highly cosmopolitan and tolerant Amsterdam, Muslim/Oriental figures (possibly Ottoman or Moroccan merchants) are shown negotiating. While the VOC was a major force behind the economic miracle of the Dutch Republic in the 17th-century, the VOC's institutional innovations played a decisive role in the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of a (global) international financial centre.
The shipyard of the United East India Company (VOC) in Amsterdam (1726 engraving by Joseph Mulder). The shipbuilding district of Zaan, near Amsterdam, became one of the world's earliest known industrialized areas, with around 900 wind-powered sawmills at the end of the 17th century. By the early seventeenth century Dutch shipyards were producing a large number of ships to a standard design, allowing extensive division of labour, a specialization which further reduced unit costs.
Jan Vermeer's View of Delft (ca. 1660–61). During the Dutch Golden Age, the VOC significantly influenced Delft's economy, both directly and indirectly.
A replica of the VOC's Halve Maen (captained by Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch Republic) passes modern-day lower Manhattan, where the original ship would have sailed while investigating New York harbor
In the Age of Sail, the Brouwer Route, devised by VOC navigator Hendrik Brouwer in 1611, greatly reduced the voyage between Cape of Good Hope (Dutch Cape Colony) to Java (Dutch East Indies) from almost 12 months to about 6 months, compared to the previous Arab and Portuguese monsoon route. The Brouwer Route played a major role in the European discovery of the west coast of Australia.
A typical map from the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. Australasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s–1720s): including Nova Guinea (New Guinea), Nova Hollandia (mainland Australia), Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and Nova Zeelandia (New Zealand).
Australia (Nova Hollandia) was the last human-inhabited continent to be explored and mapped (by non-natives). The Dutch were the first to undisputedly explore and map Australia's coastline. In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast.
Detail from a 1657 map by Jan Janssonius, showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia
The VOC's economic activity in Mauritius largely contributed to the extinction of the dodo, a flightless bird that was endemic to the island. The first recorded mention of the dodo was by Dutch navigators in the late 1590s.
Natives of Arakan sell slaves to the Dutch East India Company, c.1663 CE.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, the founder of Cape Town, arriving in Table Bay in 1652
The statue of Willem de Vlamingh with the Hartog Plate, Vlieland
Monument to the "Tsar-Carpenter" Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) in St. Petersburg, Russia. In order to learn more about the 17th-century Dutch maritime power, Tsar Peter I came to work incognito as a ship's carpenter at the VOC's shipyards in Amsterdam and Zaandam/Saardam, for a period of four months (1697).
The Flying Dutchman by Albert Pinkham Ryder, c. 1887 (Smithsonian American Art Museum). The legend of the Flying Dutchman is likely to have originated from the 17th-century golden age of the VOC.
Cape Dutch style-influenced eclectic building of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Swellendam. The Cape Dutch architecture, along with Afrikaans language and Afrikaans literature, is among the lasting legacy of the VOC-era Afrikaans culture in South Africa.
Black, green, pink, and white peppercorns. In terms of spice trade, the VOC was an early pioneering model of the global supply chain in its modern sense. Dutch word "peperduur" – which literally translated as "pepper expensive" or "as expensive as pepper" – is an expression for something that is very costly.
VOC Trade Cloth, 1675–1725, with Mughal tent hanging / summer carpet motif. Made in India for the Indonesian market. Fine textiles from India were a popular luxury import into Indonesia, and some still survive as treasured heirlooms.
The arrival of King Charles II of England in Rotterdam, 24 May 1660 by Lieve Verschuier. King Charles II of England sailed from Breda to Delft in May 1660 in a yacht owned by the VOC. HMY Mary and HMY Bezan (both were built by the VOC) were given to Charles II, on the restoration of the monarchy, as part of the Dutch Gift.
Johan Nieuhof's An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces (1665).
The cover of the Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot Drakenstein.<ref>Manilal, K. S. (1984), 'Hortus Malabaricus and the Ethnoiatrical Knowledge of Ancient Malabar,'. Ancient Science of Life 4(2): 96–99</ref><ref>Manilal, K.S.: Hortus Malabaricus and the Socio-Cultural Heritage of India. (Calicut: Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy, 2012)</ref><ref>Dharmapalan, Biju (2012), 'Hortus Malabaricus: Celebrating the Tricentennial of a Botanic Epic,'. SR 49(10): 26–28</ref><ref>Manilal, K. S. (2005), 'Hortus Malabaricus, a book on the plants of Malabar, and its impact on the religious of Christianity and Hinduism in the 17th century Kerala,'. Indian Journal of Botanical Research 1(1): 13–28</ref>
Title page of Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750)
Title page of Hortus Cliffortianus (1737). The work was a collaboration between Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) and Georg Dionysius Ehret, financed by George Clifford III, one of the directors of the VOC.
Title page of Musa Cliffortiana (1736), Carl Linnaeus's first botanical monograph.
Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus) lived and studied for three years, from 1735 until 1738, in the Dutch Republic – a seminal period in his life and career (see articles Herman Boerhaave, Johannes Burman, Engelbert Kaempfer, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, Carl Peter Thunberg, George Clifford III and Hartekamp). VOC people's scientific contributions had a considerable influence on his work.<ref>Heniger, J.: Hendrik Adriaan van Reed tot Drakestein (1636–1691) and Hortus Malabaricus: A Contribution to the History of Dutch Colonial Botany. (Rotterdam: A.A.Balkema, 1986). Heniger (1986): "Allure by the fame of Dutch botany, the young Linnaeus here spent some years, 1735–1738, to complete his schooling."</ref><ref>Skott, Christina (2010), 'The VOC and Swedish Natural History: The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge in the Eighteenth Century,'; in Siegfried Huigen, Jan L. de Jong & Elmer Kolfin (eds.), The Dutch Trading Companies as Knowledge Networks. (Brill, 2010), pp. 361–392</ref><ref>Thijsse, Gerard (2018), 'A Contribution to the History of the Herbaria of George Clifford III (1685–1760),'. Archives of Natural History 45(1): 134–148. {{doi|10.3366/anh.2018.0489}}</ref><ref>Barth, Nadine; van Andel, Tinde (2018), 'Paul Hermann's Ceylon Herbarium (1672–1679) at Leiden, the Netherlands,'. Taxon 67(5): 977–988</ref><ref>Jarvis, C.E. (2019), 'Georg Rumphius' Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778),'. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 71: 87–107</ref>
Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg was a VOC physician and an apostle of Linnaeus.
With the support of Governor of the VOC-rule Dutch Cape Colony Ryk Tulbagh, French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille studied the stars of the southern hemisphere from 1750 until 1754 from Cape of Good Hope, when he was said to have observed more than 10,000 stars using a {{convert|0.5|in|mm}} refracting telescope.<ref name="Wisconsin-Madison">{{cite web|url=http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/extra/Lacaille.html|title=Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713–1762)|website=Department of Astronomy. University of Wisconsin-Madison|access-date=1 August 2016}}</ref> were newly created in 1763 by Lacaille appearing in his star catalogue, published in 1756.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lacaille.htm |title=Lacaille's southern planisphere |author=Ian Ridpath}}</ref>
Black swans on the shore of the Swan River (Western Australia), with the Perth skyline in the background. The thousand-year-old conclusion "all swans are white" was disproved by the VOC navigator Willem de Vlamingh's 1697 discovery.
Hansken, a young female Asian elephant from Dutch Ceylon, was brought to Amsterdam in 1637, aboard a VOC ship. Rembrandt's Hansken drawing is believed to be an early portrait of one of the first Asian elephants described by science.
Rembrandt's self-portrait as an oriental potentate with a kris/keris, a Javanese blade weapon from the VOC era (etching, c. 1634). Also, he was one of the first known western printmakers to extensively use (the VOC-imported) Japanese paper. It's important to note that some major figures of Dutch Golden Age art like Rembrandt and Vermeer never went abroad during their lifetime. More than just a for-profit corporation of the early modern world, the VOC was instrumental in 'bringing' the East (Orient) to the West (Occident),<ref>Seneviratne, Nadeera (2010), 'Globalising Hansken: An Elephant in The Netherlands,'; in Leelananda Prematilleke (ed.), Abhinandanamālā: Nandana Chutiwongs Felicitation Volume. (Bangkok: SPAFA Regional Centre of Archaeology and Fine Arts, 2010), pp. 259–273</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A research on the exchange of costume culture between Netherlands and Japan through 17th–18th century Dutch East India Company,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(4): 109–123</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A Study on Orientalism in the Paintings of Delft School in 17th Century Netherlands,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(8): 136–150</ref> <ref>Schrader, Stephanie; et al. (eds.): Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India. (Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2018) {{ISBN|978-1-60606-552-5}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India (catalogue)|url=http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/rembrandt_india/downloads/rembrandt_india_checklist.pdf|access-date=18 October 2019}}</ref> and vice versa.<ref>Sugita, Genpaku: Rangaku Kotohajime: Dawn of Western Science in Japan. Translated from the Japanese by Matsumoto Ryozo and Kiyooka Eiichi. (Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1968)</ref><ref>Goodman, Grant K.: Dutch Impact on Japan, 1640–1853. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967)</ref><ref>Nagazumi, Yōko (ed.): Large and Broad: The Dutch Impact on Early Modern Asia. Essays in Honor of Leonard Blussé. (Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 2010)</ref><ref>North, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta (eds.): Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014)</ref>
Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, by Dutch Golden Age painter Willem Kalf (c. 1660s). 17th-century Chinese export porcelain wares (imported by the VOC) are often depicted in many Dutch Golden Age genre and still-life paintings.
Shop window display of Delftware in the market place, Delft. East Asian–inspired Delftware, a lasting cultural and economic legacy of the VOC era.
Blaeu's Atlas Maior (1662–1672), a monumental multi-volume world atlas from the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s–1670s) and a widely recognized masterpiece in the history of mapmaking. Willem Blaeu and his son Joan Blaeu were both official cartographers to the VOC.
Regions of Oceania (including Australasia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia). "The Island Continent" Australia was the last human-inhabited continent to be largely known to the civilized world. The VOC's navigators were the first non-natives to undisputedly discover, explore and chart coastlines of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Tonga, and Fiji.
Abel Tasman's routes of the first and second voyage
Wall of Fort Zeelandia/Fort Anping, Tainan (Taiwan)
The Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop in Dutch), Cape Town, South Africa
The restored conference room of the {{ill|Heeren XVII|nl|Heren XVII}} (the VOC's board of directors) in the East Indies House/Oost-Indisch Huis, Amsterdam
A replica of the VOC vessel Batavia (1620–29)
19th-century illustration Halve Maen (Half Moon) in the Hudson River in 1609
Anonymous painting with Table Mountain in the background, 1762
Dutch church at Batavia, Dutch East Indies, 1682
A naval cannon (Dejima, Nagasaki, Japan). The letters "VOC" are the monogram of the "Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie" and the letter "A" represents the "Amsterdam" Chamber of the company.
The Seri Rambai at Fort Cornwallis, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
Aerial view of Galle Fort (Galle) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Sri Lanka
Malacca City (Malacca) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Malaysia
Sword of the East India Company, featuring the V.O.C. monogram of the guard. On display at the Musée de l'Armée in Paris.
VOC ships in Chittagong or Arakan.
City hall of Batavia in 1682 CE.
Frontispiece from Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique by François Levaillant
First Flag of the Dutch East India Company
Second Flag of the Dutch East India Company, adopted with red stripe around 1630 or 1663 and beyond, for the purpose of better visibility at sea against a light sky
Flag of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East Indies Company
Later flag of the Dutch East Indies, after Dutch East India Company was dissolved
Late 18th-century plate in European style, with Dutch/VOC ships, Canton porcelain, painted there on a "blank" from Jingdezhen.
Purchase Contract signed July 5, 1797, between 'Committee for the Affairs of East India Trade and Property' (on behalf of the Batavian Republic) and De Coninck Firm, notarised by Jan Harmsen. Since the VOC had incurred debts of millions, its Indian merchandise in Batavia was sold to the firm. The VOC was unable to send its ships; the firm itself was responsible for collecting the merchandise from Batavia. The merchandise included spices (Nutmeg, Cloves, Black and Brown pepper), dyes (Indigo, Sappan wood, Caliatour wood), Coffee, and Powdered sugar.
Kopi luwak, coffee seeds from faeces of palm civet, Lampung, Indonesia. Coffee cultivation in Indonesia began in the late 1600s and early 1700s, in the VOC period. Indonesia was the fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.

Having been set up in 1602, to profit from the Malukan spice trade, in 1619 the VOC established a capital in the port city of Jayakarta and changed the city name into Batavia (now Jakarta).

The VOC's territories became the Dutch East Indies and were expanded over the course of the 19th century to include the whole of the Indonesian archipelago, and in the 20th century would form the Republic of Indonesia.

Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").

Indonesian language

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Official and national language of Indonesia.

Official and national language of Indonesia.

Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, written in Pallava script, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.
Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.
The Youth Pledge was the result of the Second Youth Congress held in Batavia in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of Indonesian language as a unifying language throughout the archipelago.
Road-signs in an airport terminal
Toll gate in Bali
Indonesian language used on a Kopaja bus advertisement
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use standard Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.
Indonesian is used in schools.
Indonesian word "Gereja" (Church) is derived from Portuguese "Igreja". The sign reads: "Gereja & Candi Hati Kudus Tuhan Yesus Ganjuran Keuskupan Agung Semarang" (The Church and Temple of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Ganjuran Archdiocese of Semarang).
The Indonesian word of bioskop is derived from Dutch bioscoop (movie theater).
BIPA (Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing) book, which helps foreigners to learn the Indonesian language effectively.
Old one thousand Indonesian Rupiah banknote, featuring Indonesian national hero Thomas Matulessy.
Indonesian-language calendar
Location where Indonesian language seen as the business language which taught in schools, colleges, universities, institutions, etc.

The most common and widely used colloquial Indonesian is heavily influenced by the Betawi language, a Malay-based creole of Jakarta, amplified by its popularity in Indonesian popular culture in mass media and Jakarta's status as the national capital.

Beside from local languages, Dutch made the highest contribution to the Indonesian vocabulary, due to the Dutch's colonization for over three centuries, from the 16th century until the mid-20th century.