Dutch Republicwikipedia
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
United ProvincesDutchNetherlandsUnited NetherlandsHollandRepublic of the Seven United NetherlandsDutch Republicthe NetherlandsRepublic of the United Seven NetherlandsRepublic of the Seven United Provinces

Dutch Revolt

Dutch rebelsEighty Years' WarDutch revolt
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces.

Batavian Revolution

Patriot revolttermination of the Dutch republicrevolt in the Netherlands in 1787
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Batavian Revolution (De Bataafse Revolutie) was a political, social and cultural turmoil at the end of the 18th century that marked the end of the Dutch Republic and saw the proclamation of the Batavian Republic.

Netherlands

Dutchthe NetherlandsNL
It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people. Until the 16th century, the Low Countries – corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg – consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, which was under the Kingdom of France.
The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious.

Dutch people

DutchDutchmanDutchmen
It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people.
Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic.

William the Silent

William of OrangePrince of OrangeWilliam the Silent
In 1568 the Netherlands, led by William I of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of high taxes, persecution of Protestants by the government, and Philip's efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved-medieval government structures of the provinces.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.

Eighty Years' War

Dutch War of IndependenceWar of Independencewar
This was the start of the Eighty Years' War.
They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

Nation state

nation statenation-statecountry
It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people.
However, historians also note the early emergence of a relatively unified state and identity in Portugal and the Dutch Republic.

Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilip
Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain.
This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581.

Spanish Netherlands

NetherlandsSpanishLow Countries
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
When part of the Netherlands separated to form the autonomous Dutch Republic in 1581, the remainder of the area stayed under Spanish rule until the War of the Spanish Succession.

Union of Utrecht

Utrecht UnionUnited Provinces1579 Treaty of Utrecht
In 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army.
The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609.

Batavian Republic

BatavianBataviaBatavian Republic
The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806).
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

Prussian invasion of Holland

suppress the rebellionPrussian troops invaderetook the Netherlands
Initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787.
The Prussian invasion of Holland was a Prussian military campaign in September–October 1787 to restore the Orange stadtholderate in the Dutch Republic against the rise of the democratic Patriot movement.

Belgium

BelgianBelgiumBEL
Until the 16th century, the Low Countries – corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg – consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, which was under the Kingdom of France.
The Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces (Belgica Foederata in Latin, the "Federated Netherlands") and the Southern Netherlands (Belgica Regia, the "Royal Netherlands").

William V, Prince of Orange

William VPrince of OrangeWilliam V of Orange
The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806).
William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.

Flanders Campaign

FlandersNetherlandsvictories over Austrian and British troops in May and June 1794
The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806).
A Coalition of states representing the Ancien Régime in Western Europe – Austria (including the Southern Netherlands), Prussia, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic (the Northern Netherlands), Hanover and Hesse-Kassel – mobilised military forces along all the French frontiers, with the intention to invade Revolutionary France and end the French First Republic.

Republicanism in the Netherlands

republicanrepublicanismDutch republican
During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities.
After futile attempts to find a hereditary head of state, the Dutch Republic was proclaimed in 1588.

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester

Earl of LeicesterRobert DudleyLeicester
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England (Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585), and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
His acceptance of the post of Governor-General of the United Provinces infuriated Queen Elizabeth.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of Westphaliapeace of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster
The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The treaties also ended the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch (who had unilaterally declared independence in 1581) and freeing them from the Holy Roman Empire.

United Kingdom of the Netherlands

NetherlandsUnited NetherlandsDutch
In 1815 it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège (the "Southern provinces") to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France.
The United Netherlands was created in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars through the fusion of territories that had belonged to the former Dutch Republic, Austrian Netherlands, and Prince-Bishopric of Liège.

Anglo-French War (1778–1783)

Anglo-French Warwar with BritainWest Indies campaign
During the Anglo-French war (1778), the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, and the Orangists, who were pro-British.
Vergennes' diplomatic moves following the French war with Britain also had material impact on the later entry of the Dutch Republic into the war, and declarations of neutrality on the part of other important geopolitical players like Russia.

Dutch Empire

DutchDutch coloniesDutch colony
During the Dutch Golden Age in the late 16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch Republic dominated world trade, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

Dutch Golden Age

Golden AgeGolden Age of Dutch science and technologyDutch style
During the Dutch Golden Age in the late 16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch Republic dominated world trade, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation.
The Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century.

County of Holland

Hollandcounty of HollandCount of Holland
The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world.
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

Treaty of Nonsuch

Treaties of Nonsuchtreaty of Nonsuch
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England (Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585), and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
It was the first international treaty signed by what would become the Dutch Republic.

Kingdom of Holland

HollandKing of HollandDutch
After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810).
The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country.