Dutch Republic

United ProvincesDutchNetherlandsUnited NetherlandsHollandRepublic of the Seven United Netherlandsthe NetherlandsUnited Provinces of the NetherlandsRepublic of the Seven United ProvincesRepublic of the United Seven Netherlands
The Dutch Republic or United Provinces was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.wikipedia
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Dutch Revolt

Dutch rebelsEighty Years' Warrevolt
The Dutch Republic or United Provinces was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces.

Batavian Revolution

Patriot revoltFrench eraoverthrown with French assistance
The Dutch Republic or United Provinces was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Batavian Revolution (De Bataafse Revolutie) was a time of political, social and cultural turmoil at the end of the 18th century that marked the end of the Dutch Republic and saw the proclamation of the Batavian Republic.

Netherlands

Dutch🇳🇱the Netherlands
It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people. Until the 16th century, the Low Countries – corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg – consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, which was under the Kingdom of France.
The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious.

Dutch people

DutchDutchmanDutchmen
It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people.
Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic.

Nation state

nation-statecountrynation-states
It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people.
However, historians also note the early emergence of a relatively unified state and identity in Portugal and the Dutch Republic.

Spanish Netherlands

NetherlandsSpanishLow Countries
The Dutch Republic or United Provinces was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
When part of the Netherlands separated to form the autonomous Dutch Republic in 1581, the remainder of the area stayed under Spanish rule until the War of the Spanish Succession.

Eighty Years' War

Dutch War of IndependenceWar of IndependenceDutch Revolt
This was the start of the Eighty Years' War.
They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

Belgium

🇧🇪BelgianBEL
Until the 16th century, the Low Countries – corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg – consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, which was under the Kingdom of France.
The Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces (Belgica Foederata in Latin, the "Federated Netherlands") and the Southern Netherlands (Belgica Regia, the "Royal Netherlands").

Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilip
Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain.
This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581.

William the Silent

William of OrangePrince of OrangePrince William of Orange
In 1568 the Netherlands, led by William I of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of high taxes, persecution of Protestants by the government, and Philip's efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved-medieval government structures of the provinces.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.

Union of Utrecht

United ProvincesUtrecht Union1579 Treaty of Utrecht
In 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army.
The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609.

Low Countries

Low CountryDutchLowlands
Until the 16th century, the Low Countries – corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg – consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, which was under the Kingdom of France.
On one hand, the northern Federated Netherlands or Belgica Foederata rebelled against the Spanish king; on the other, the southern Royal Netherlands or Belgica Regia remained loyal to the Spanish king.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
The Dutch Republic or United Provinces was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
During the Dutch Revolt (beginning in 1566), the Dutch Republic emerged from rejection of Spanish Habsburg rule.

Prussian invasion of Holland

defeated by a Prussian armyin the north in 1787intervene militarily
Initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787.
The Prussian invasion of Holland was a Prussian military campaign in September–October 1787 to restore the Orange stadtholderate in the Dutch Republic against the rise of the democratic Patriot movement.

Republicanism in the Netherlands

republicanDutch republicanrepublicanism
During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities.
After futile attempts to find a hereditary head of state, the Dutch Republic was proclaimed in 1588.

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester

Earl of LeicesterRobert DudleyLeicester
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England (Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585), and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
His acceptance of the post of Governor-General of the United Provinces infuriated Queen Elizabeth.

Flanders Campaign

FlanderscampaignNetherlands
The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806).
A Coalition of states representing the Ancien Régime in Western Europe – Austria (including the Southern Netherlands), Prussia, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic (the Northern Netherlands), Hanover and Hesse-Kassel – mobilised military forces along all the French frontiers, with the intention to invade Revolutionary France and end the French First Republic.

Batavian Republic

BatavianBataviaDutch
The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806).
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

William V, Prince of Orange

William VPrince of OrangeWillem V
The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806).
William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The treaties also ended the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch.

Anglo-French War (1778–1783)

Anglo-French Warwar with BritainWest Indies campaign
During the Anglo-French war (1778), the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, and the Orangists, who were pro-British.
Vergennes' diplomatic moves following the French war with Britain also had material impact on the later entry of the Dutch Republic into the war, and declarations of neutrality on the part of other important geopolitical players like Russia.

Treaty of Nonsuch

Treaties of Nonsuch
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England (Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585), and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
It was the first international treaty signed by what would become the Dutch Republic.

United Kingdom of the Netherlands

NetherlandsUnited NetherlandsDutch
In 1815 it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège (the "Southern provinces") to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France.
The United Netherlands was created in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars through the fusion of territories that had belonged to the former Dutch Republic, Austrian Netherlands, and Prince-Bishopric of Liège.

Kingdom of Holland

HollandKing of HollandDutch
After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810).
The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country.

Francis, Duke of Anjou

Duke of AnjouDuke of Alençonduc d'Alençon
In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them; but after a failed attempt to take Antwerp in 1583, the duke left the Netherlands again.
In 1579, he was invited by William the Silent to become hereditary sovereign to the United Provinces.