Dutch Revolt

Dutch War of IndependenceDutch rebelsEighty Years' WarRevolt of the NetherlandsrevoltDutch independenceFlanders WarNetherlandsDutch RevolutionIconoclasm
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces.wikipedia
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Dutch Republic

United ProvincesDutchNetherlands
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, whose first leader was William the Silent (William of Orange), followed by several of his descendants and relations.
The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or simply United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), and commonly referred to historiographically as the Dutch Republic, was a confederal republic formally established from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795.

Dutch Empire

DutchDutch coloniesDutch colony
This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power and the founding of the Dutch Empire.
In 1566, a Protestant Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, sparking the Eighty Years' War.

Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilip
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces.
Following the Revolt of the Netherlands in 1568, Philip waged a campaign against Dutch heresy and secession.

Duchy of Burgundy

BurgundyBurgundianBurgundians
Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles of Habsburg, heir to the Burgundian lands via his grandmother Mary, was born in Ghent in 1500.
During the Dutch Revolt or Eighty Years War (1568–1648), the northern provinces of the Low Countries gained their independence from Spanish rule and formed the Dutch Republic (today the Netherlands), while the southern provinces remained under Spanish rule until the 18th century and became known as the Spanish Netherlands or Southern Netherlands (corresponding roughly to present day Belgium, Luxembourg, and the areas in France corresponding to the Nord department and part of the Pas-de-Calais department).

States General of the Netherlands

States GeneralStates-GeneralStates-General of the Netherlands
However, in 1558 the States of the provinces and the States-General of the Netherlands already started to contradict Philip's wishes by objecting to his tax proposals.
In 1579, during the Dutch Revolt, the States General split as the northern provinces openly rebelled against Philip II, and the northern States General replaced Philip II as the supreme authority of the Dutch Republic in 1581.

Stadtholder

stadholderstadhouderStatthalter
An example of this is the takeover of power in the city of Utrecht in 1528, when Charles V supplanted the council of guild masters governing the city by his own stadtholder, who took over worldly powers in the whole province of Utrecht from the archbishop of Utrecht. William I of Orange was stadtholder of the provinces Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, and Burgrave of Antwerp, and he was the most influential noble in the States General who had signed the petition.
The Dutch monarchy is only distantly related to the first stadtholder of the young Republic, William of Orange, the leader of the successful Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Empire, his line having died out with William III.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the United Provinces.
During the Dutch Revolt (beginning in 1566), the Dutch Republic emerged from rejection of Spanish Habsburg rule.

Army of Flanders

Spanish Army of Flandersarmyan army
He saw no other option than to send an army to suppress the rebellion.
In addition to taking part in numerous battles of the Dutch Revolt (1567–1609) and the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), it also employed many developing military concepts more reminiscent of later military units, enjoying permanent, standing regiments (tercios), barracks, military hospitals and rest homes long before they were adopted in most of Europe.

William the Silent

William of OrangeWilliam I of OrangeWilliam I, Prince of Orange
These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, whose first leader was William the Silent (William of Orange), followed by several of his descendants and relations. William I of Orange was stadtholder of the provinces Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, and Burgrave of Antwerp, and he was the most influential noble in the States General who had signed the petition.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.

Council of State (Netherlands)

Council of StateMember of the Council of StateCouncil of State of the Netherlands
Under the governorship of Mary of Hungary (1531–1555), traditional power had for a large part been taken away both from the stadtholders of the provinces and from the high noblemen, who had been replaced by professional jurists in the Council of State.
The latter faction felt themselves pushed aside and resigned in 1567, leaving the field to a Spanish-dominated Council at the start of the Dutch Revolt.

Antwerp

Antwerp, BelgiumAntwerpenAnvers
William I of Orange was stadtholder of the provinces Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, and Burgrave of Antwerp, and he was the most influential noble in the States General who had signed the petition.
Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries, especially before and during the Spanish Fury (1576) and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt.

Eighty Years' War

Eighty Years WarDutch War of IndependenceWar of Independence
The Spanish had won the Battle of Rheindalen near Roermond on 23 April 1568, but the Battle of Heiligerlee, fought on 23 May 1568, is commonly regarded as the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, and it was a victory for the rebel army.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.

Friesland

FrisianFryslânFrisia
Although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance (under Grutte Pier and Charles of Egmond, respectively), virtually all of the Low Countries had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s.
In 1566, Frisia joined the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule.

Wilhelmus

Het WilhelmusDutch national anthemWilhelmus van Nassouwe
This view is reflected in today's Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus, in which the last lines of the first stanza read: den koning van Hispanje heb ik altijd geëerd (I have always honoured the King of Spain).
The "Wilhelmus" originated in the Dutch Revolt, the nation's struggle to achieve independence from the Spanish Empire.

Utrecht

Utrecht, NetherlandsUtrecht (city)city of Utrecht
An example of this is the takeover of power in the city of Utrecht in 1528, when Charles V supplanted the council of guild masters governing the city by his own stadtholder, who took over worldly powers in the whole province of Utrecht from the archbishop of Utrecht.
The castle would last less than 50 years before it was demolished in an uprising in the early stages of the Dutch Revolt.

Iconoclasm

iconoclasticonoclasticiconoclasts
This incident was followed by similar riots elsewhere in Flanders, and before long the Netherlands had become the scene of the Beeldenstorm, a riotous iconoclastic movement by Calvinists, who stormed churches and other religious buildings to desecrate and destroy church art and all kinds of decorative fittings over most of the country.
The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who had pragmatic reasons to support the Dutch Revolt (the rebels, like himself, were fighting against Spain) also completely approved of their act of "destroying idols", which accorded well with Muslim teachings.

Amsterdam

Amsterdam, NetherlandsAmsterdam, The NetherlandsAmsterdam, Holland
Notable exceptions were Amsterdam and Middelburg, which remained loyal to the Catholic cause until 1578.
Strongly pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance.

Low Countries

The Low CountriesLow CountryNetherlands
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces.
The Pragmatic Sanction is said to be one example of the Habsburg contest with particularism that contributed to the Dutch Revolt.

Duchy of Brabant

BrabantBrabantineBrabantian
In response to the union of Arras, William united the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Groningen in the Union of Utrecht on 23 January 1579; Brabant and Flanders joined a month later, in February 1579.
It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1430 and of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1482, until it was partitioned after the Dutch revolt.

Margaret of Parma

Margaret of AustriaMargaret, Duchess of ParmaMargaret
In an effort to build a stable and trustworthy government of the Netherlands, Philip appointed his half-sister Margaret of Parma as governor.
He was determined to pursue his own arbitrary course, and the result was the revolt of the Netherlands.

Dordrecht

Dordrecht, NetherlandsDortrechtDort
He was recognized as Governor-General and Stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, Friesland and Utrecht at a meeting in Dordrecht in July 1572.
In 1572, four years into the Dutch Revolt, representatives of all the cities of Holland, with the exception of Amsterdam, as well as the Watergeuzen, represented by William II de la Marck, gathered in Dordrecht to hold the Eerste Vrije Statenvergadering ("First Assembly of the Free States"), also known as the Unie van Dordrecht ("Union of Dordrecht").

English political intrigue during the Dutch Revolt

England had unofficially been supporting the Dutch
While England had unofficially been supporting the Dutch for years, Elizabeth had not officially supported the Dutch because she was afraid it might aggravate Spain into a war.
English political intrigue, and further involvement in the Dutch Revolt by the Kingdom of England under Queen Elizabeth I, supported the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in achieving its independence during the Dutch Revolt (1585–1648), in resistance to Habsburg Spain under Philip II.

House of Habsburg

HabsburgHabsburgsHabsburg dynasty
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces.
The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces.

Treaty of Nonsuch

Treaties of Nonsuch
(Elizabeth did later provide aid to the Dutch rebels in the Treaty of Nonsuch (1585), and as a consequence Philip aided Irish rebels in the Nine Years' War.)
The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed on 19 August 1585 by Elizabeth I of England and the Dutch rebels fighting against Spanish rule.

Act of Abjuration

Plakkaat van Verlatinghe1581 declarationabjured
The States-General issued the Act of Abjuration, which declared that the King of Spain had not upheld his responsibilities to the people of the Netherlands and therefore would no longer be accepted as the rightful sovereign.
The Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, Acta de Abjuración, literally 'placard of abjuration') is the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands from the allegiance to Philip II of Spain, during the Dutch Revolt.