Dutch West India Company

Dutch West Indies CompanyWICWest India CompanyWest India companiesDutchWest-Indische CompagnieNew HollandDutch colonistsDutch West IndiaDutch West India Company (W.I.C.)
Dutch West India Company (Verenigde Westindische Compagnie, or WIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.wikipedia
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Willem Usselincx

Among its founders was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647).
Usselincx was the founding father of the Dutch West India Company.

New Netherland

New NetherlandsDutchNieuw-Nederland
The company became instrumental in the largely ephemeral Dutch colonization of the Americas (including New Netherland) in the seventeenth century. In 1629 the WIC gave permission to a number of investors in New Netherlands to found patroonships, enabled by the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions which was ratified by the Dutch States-General on June 7, 1629.
The colony was conceived by the Dutch West India Company (WIC) in 1621 to capitalize on the North American fur trade.

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
Dutch West India Company (Verenigde Westindische Compagnie, or WIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
The Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company established colonies and trading posts all over the world, including ruling the northern parts of Taiwan between 1624–1662 and 1664–1667.

Dutch–Portuguese War

Dutch-Portuguese WarSiege of Recife (1630)spice wars
From 1624 to 1654, in the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War, the WIC held Portuguese territory in northeast Brazil, but they were ousted from Dutch Brazil following fierce resistance.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.

Dutch Brazil

New HollandDutchDutch occupation of Brazil
From 1624 to 1654, in the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War, the WIC held Portuguese territory in northeast Brazil, but they were ousted from Dutch Brazil following fierce resistance. They sent a fleet to Brazil, capturing Olinda and Pernambuco in 1630 in their initial foray to create a Dutch Brazil, but could not hold them due to a strong Portuguese resistance. Other settlements were established on the Netherlands Antilles, and in South America, in Dutch Brazil, Suriname and Guyana. In 1630, the colony of New Holland (capital Mauritsstad, present-day Recife) was founded, taking over Portuguese possessions in Brazil.
The Dutch West India Company (WIC) set up its headquarters in Recife.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
When the Dutch East India Company (VOC) was founded in 1602, some traders in Amsterdam did not agree with its mono politics.
Along with the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC), the VOC was seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire.

Dutch colonization of the Americas

DutchDutch settlersDutch colonial
The company became instrumental in the largely ephemeral Dutch colonization of the Americas (including New Netherland) in the seventeenth century.
By 1621, the United Provinces had charted a new company, a trading monopoly in the Americas and West Africa: the Dutch West India Company (Westindische Compagnie or WIC).

Samuel Blommaert

Consequently, in 1615 Isaac Le Maire and Samuel Blommaert, assisted by others, focused on finding a south-westerly route around South America's Tierra del Fuego archipelago in order to circumvent the monopoly of the VOC.
Samuel Blommaert (Bloemaert, Blommaerts, Blommaart, Blomert, etc.) (11 or 21 August 1583 in Antwerp – 23 December 1651 in Amsterdam ) was a Flemish/Dutch merchant and director of the Dutch West India Company from 1622 to 1629 and again from 1636 to 1642.

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

Fourth Anglo–Dutch War4th Anglo-Dutch Warat war
This "New" version lasted for more than a century, until after the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, during which it lost most its assets.
This trade was mainly conducted via the entrepôt of St. Eustatius, an island colony of the Dutch West India Company in the Caribbean.

Dutch Gold Coast

Gold CoastDutchDutch Guinea
In 1612, a Dutch fortress was built in Mouree (present day Ghana), along the Dutch Gold Coast. In Africa, posts were established on the Gold Coast (now Ghana), the Slave Coast (now Benin), and briefly in Angola.
After the Twelve Years's Truce ended in 1621, the Dutch West India Company was established, which tried to seize the Portuguese colonies in Africa and America as part of the Groot Desseyn plan.

Amsterdam

Amsterdam, NetherlandsAmsterdam, The NetherlandsAmsterdam, Holland
Like the VOC, the WIC company had five offices, called chambers (kamers), in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn, Middelburg and Groningen, of which the chambers in Amsterdam and Middelburg contributed most to the company.
Amsterdam's merchants had the largest share in both the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company.

Groot Desseyn

Grand Design
A Groot Desseyn ("grand design") was devised to seize the Portuguese colonies in Africa and the Americas, so as to dominate the sugar and slave trade.
The Groot Desseyn (Dutch for "Grand Design") was a plan devised in 1623 by the Dutch West India Company to seize the Portuguese/Spanish possessions of Iberian Union in Africa and the Americas, in order that the Spanish would not collect enough money for their war against The Netherlands.

Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions

Charter of Privileges and ExemptionsNew Project of Freedoms and Exemptions
In 1629 the WIC gave permission to a number of investors in New Netherlands to found patroonships, enabled by the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions which was ratified by the Dutch States-General on June 7, 1629.
The Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, sometimes referred to as the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, is a document written by the Dutch West India Company in an effort to settle its colony of New Netherland in North America through the establishment of feudal patroonships purchased and supplied by members of the West India Company.

Patroon

patroonshippatroonspatroon system
In 1629 the WIC gave permission to a number of investors in New Netherlands to found patroonships, enabled by the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions which was ratified by the Dutch States-General on June 7, 1629.
Through the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 1629, the Dutch West India Company first started to grant this title and land to some of its invested members.

New Amsterdam

Nieuw AmsterdamNew OrangeDutch
The New Netherland area, which included New Amsterdam, covered parts of present-day New York, Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey.
The fort was situated on the strategic southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was meant to defend the fur trade operations of the Dutch West India Company in the North River (Hudson River).

Manor of Rensselaerswyck

RensselaerswyckRensselaerwyckRensselaerswijck
Rensselaerswyck was the most successful Dutch West India Company patroonship.
The estate was originally deeded by the Dutch West India Company in 1630 to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, a Dutch merchant and one of the company's original directors.

New Jersey

NJState of New JerseyJersey
The New Netherland area, which included New Amsterdam, covered parts of present-day New York, Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey.
Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.

Pernambuco

PEPernambuco statePernambuco, Brazil
They sent a fleet to Brazil, capturing Olinda and Pernambuco in 1630 in their initial foray to create a Dutch Brazil, but could not hold them due to a strong Portuguese resistance.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills (engenho) were built and a sugar-based economy developed.

Piet Pieterszoon Hein

Piet HeinPiet HeynPieter Heyn
The most spectacular success for the WIC was Piet Heyn's seizure of the Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain.
In 1623, he became vice-admiral of the new Dutch West India Company and sailed to the West Indies the following year.

Dutch Slave Coast

Dutch slave tradeenslavedenslavement
In Africa, posts were established on the Gold Coast (now Ghana), the Slave Coast (now Benin), and briefly in Angola.
The Dutch Slave Coast (Dutch: Slavenkust) refers to the trading posts of the Dutch West India Company on the Slave Coast, which lie in contemporary Ghana, Benin, Togo and Nigeria.

Suriname

SurinamSurinameseRepublic of Suriname
Other settlements were established on the Netherlands Antilles, and in South America, in Dutch Brazil, Suriname and Guyana.
In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, and the Dutch West India Company.

Kiliaen van Rensselaer (merchant)

Kiliaen van RensselaerKillian Van RensselaerKiliaen de Rensselaer
Only Kiliaen Van Rensselaer managed to maintain his settlement in the north along the Hudson.
Kiliaen van Rensselaer (1586 – buried 7 October 1643) was a Dutch diamond and pearl merchant from Amsterdam who was one of the founders and directors of the Dutch West India Company, being instrumental in the establishment of New Netherland.

States General of the Netherlands

States GeneralStates-GeneralStates-General of the Netherlands
The States General of the Netherlands and the VOC pledged one million guilders in the form of capital and subsidy.
The Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company were also under its general supervision; for this reason Staten Island in New York City (originally New Amsterdam) and Staten Island, Argentina (Discovered by Dutchman Jacob le Maire), are among places named after the Staten-Generaal.

Eighty Years' War

Eighty Years WarDutch War of IndependenceWar of Independence
At this time, the Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic was occurring.
The chartered companies, the United East India Company (VOC) and the Dutch West India Company (WIC), provided employment on a large enough scale to compensate for the slump in other forms of trade and their trade brought great revenues.

Recife

Recife, BrazilMauriciaRecife, PE
In 1630, the colony of New Holland (capital Mauritsstad, present-day Recife) was founded, taking over Portuguese possessions in Brazil.
It was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company.