Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenlDutch-speakingStandard Dutchmodern DutchFlemishDutch wordDutch:Nederlands
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands (where it is the sole official language ) and Belgium (as one of three official languages).wikipedia
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German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.
The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish.

West Germanic languages

West GermanicWest Germanic languageWest
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands (where it is the sole official language ) and Belgium (as one of three official languages).
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.

French Flemish

FlemishDutch dialectslocal Dutch dialect
Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany, and in Indonesia, In France, a historical dialect called French Flemish is spoken.
French Flemish (French Flemish: Fransch vlaemsch, Standard Dutch: Frans-Vlaams, flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France.

South Guelderish

DutchKleverlandNijmeegs
A dialect continuum exists between Dutch and German through the South Guelderish and Limburgish dialects.
South Guelderish (Dutch: Zuid-Gelders, German: Südgeldersch, Kleverländisch) refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine (Dutch Nederrijn and German Niederrhein).

Limburgish

LimburgianliLimburgan
A dialect continuum exists between Dutch and German through the South Guelderish and Limburgish dialects.
It shares many characteristics with both German and Dutch and is often considered as a variant of one of these languages (see also Dachsprache).

Flanders

FlemishFlemingsFlemish Region
Sometimes Vlaams ("Flemish") is used as well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern ) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium.

Gender in Dutch grammar

Dutchgrammatical genders
Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order.
In the Dutch language, the gender of a noun determines the articles, adjective forms and pronouns that are used in reference to that noun.

Final-obstruent devoicing

final devoicingterminal devoicingdevoiced
Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.

Middle Dutch

MiddleDietsdum
In Middle Dutch Dietsc, Duutsc, or Duitsc was used.
Until the advent of Modern Dutch after 1500, there was no overarching standard language, but all dialects were mutually intelligible.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in South Africa and Namibia.
For example, Dutch speakers tend to find it easier to understand Afrikaans than vice versa as a result of Afrikaans's simplified grammar.

Subjunctive in Dutch

subjunctivesubjunctive mood in Dutch
Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system.
The subjunctive mood in Dutch is a verb mood typically used in dependent clauses to express a wish, command, emotion, possibility, uncertainty, doubt, judgment, opinion, necessity, or action that has not yet occurred.

West Flemish

WestFlemishVlaemsch
With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i.e.Vlaemsch, Hollandsch, and Brabantsch.
West Flemish (West-Vlaams, flamand occidental) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in western Belgium and adjoining parts of the Netherlands and France.

Low Countries

Low CountryDutchLowlands
Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it also holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean. Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, a cognate of theodisk (most likely Middle Dutch Duutsc) was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer exclusively to the people of the Netherlands.
Dutch and French dialects were the main languages used in secular city life.

Pennsylvania Dutch

Pennsylvania GermanPennsylvania GermansDutch
(A usage of the English term Dutch that includes German survives in the United States in the name Pennsylvania Dutch for a local German dialect and its speakers, commonly believed to be a corruption of their endonym Deitsch.) In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and was gradually replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands.
The word "Dutch" does not refer to the Dutch people or Dutch language, but to the German settlers, known as Deutsch (in standard German) and Deitsch (in the principal dialect they spoke, Palatine German).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.
English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
Among the Indo-European languages, Dutch is grouped within the Germanic languages, meaning it shares a common ancestor with languages such as English, German, and the Scandinavian languages.
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360-400 million native speakers; German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 24 million native speakers.

Low German

Low SaxonLow German/Low Saxonnds
Dutch is part of the West Germanic group, which also includes English, Scots, Frisian, Low German (Old Saxon) and High German.
Like Dutch (Istvaeonic), it is spoken north of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses, while (Standard) German (Irminonic) is spoken south of those lines.

Exonym and endonym

exonymendonymautonym
(A usage of the English term Dutch that includes German survives in the United States in the name Pennsylvania Dutch for a local German dialect and its speakers, commonly believed to be a corruption of their endonym Deitsch.) In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and was gradually replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, a cognate of theodisk (most likely Middle Dutch Duutsc) was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer exclusively to the people of the Netherlands.
For example, London (originally Latin Londinium) is known by the cognate exonyms Londres in Catalan, Filipino, French, Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish; Londino in Greek; Londen in Dutch; Londra in Italian, Maltese, Romanian, Sardinian and Turkish; Londër in Albanian; Londýn in Czech and Slovak; Londyn in Polish; Lundúnir in Icelandic; Lontoo in Finnish.

Sint Maarten

St. MaartenerSt. MaartenSint Maarten (Dutch part)
Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it also holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean.
Sint Maarten became an "island territory" (eilandgebied in Dutch) of the Netherlands Antilles in 1983.

High German consonant shift

second Germanic consonant shiftSecond Sound Shiftto varying degrees
Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system.

Old Saxon

SaxonLow GermanSaxon language
Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time as Old English (Anglo-Saxon), Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did.
It partially shares Anglo-Frisian's (Old Frisian, Old English) Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law which sets it apart from Low Franconian and Irminonic languages, such as Dutch, Luxembourgish and German.

Netherlands

Dutch🇳🇱the Netherlands
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands (where it is the sole official language ) and Belgium (as one of three official languages).
Saba and Sint Eustatius are part of the SSS islands. They are located east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Although in the English language they are considered part of the Leeward Islands, French, Spanish, Dutch and the English spoken locally consider them part of the Windward Islands. The Windward Islands are all of volcanic origin and hilly, leaving little ground suitable for agriculture. The highest point is Mount Scenery, 887 m, on Saba. This is the highest point in the country, and is also the highest point of the entire Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Daughter language

descendeddaughter
The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in South Africa and Namibia.
Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch, which is a daughter language of Proto-Germanic, which is a daughter language of Proto-Indo-European.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Among the Indo-European languages, Dutch is grouped within the Germanic languages, meaning it shares a common ancestor with languages such as English, German, and the Scandinavian languages.
He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.

Modal particle

modal word
Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order.
Languages that use many modal particles in their spoken form include Dutch, Danish, German, Hungarian, Russian, Telugu, Indonesian, Chinese and Japanese.