Dwarf star

dwarfDSdwarfs
A dwarf star is a star of relatively small size and low luminosity.wikipedia
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Main sequence

main-sequencemain sequence dwarfmain-sequence star
Most main sequence stars are dwarf stars. Dwarf star alone generally refers to any main-sequence star, a star of luminosity class V: main-sequence stars (dwarfs). Example: Achernar (B6Vep)
Stars on this band are known as main-sequence stars or dwarf stars.

Stellar classification

spectral typeK-typeG-type
The term was originally coined in 1906 when the Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung noticed that the reddest stars—classified as K and M in the Harvard scheme could be divided into two distinct groups. Dwarf star alone generally refers to any main-sequence star, a star of luminosity class V: main-sequence stars (dwarfs). Example: Achernar (B6Vep)
The gravity, and hence the pressure, on the surface of a giant star is much lower than for a dwarf star because the radius of the giant is much greater than a dwarf of similar mass. Therefore, differences in the spectrum can be interpreted as luminosity effects and a luminosity class can be assigned purely from examination of the spectrum.

G-type main-sequence star

yellow dwarfGG-type
Yellow dwarfs are main-sequence (dwarf) stars with masses comparable to that of the Sun.
The revised Yerkes Atlas system (Johnson & Morgan 1953) listed 11 G-type dwarf spectral standard stars; however, not all of these have survived to this day as standards.

Ultra-cool dwarf

ultracool dwarfultracool dwarfsultra-cold dwarf star
Ultra-cool dwarf
An ultra-cool dwarf is a stellar or sub-stellar object of spectral class M that has an effective temperature under 2,700 K. TRAPPIST-1 is a widely known example of an ultra-cool dwarf star.

Star, Russia

starstellarstars
A dwarf star is a star of relatively small size and low luminosity.

Luminosity

luminousbolometric luminosityluminosities
A dwarf star is a star of relatively small size and low luminosity.

Ejnar Hertzsprung

HertzsprungE. HertzsprungHertzsprung, Ejnar
The term was originally coined in 1906 when the Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung noticed that the reddest stars—classified as K and M in the Harvard scheme could be divided into two distinct groups.

Achernar

AchenarAchernar Three
Dwarf star alone generally refers to any main-sequence star, a star of luminosity class V: main-sequence stars (dwarfs). Example: Achernar (B6Vep)

Red dwarf

redred dwarf starsred dwarfs
Red dwarfs are low-mass main-sequence stars.

Sun

solarSolThe Sun
Yellow dwarfs are main-sequence (dwarf) stars with masses comparable to that of the Sun.

K-type main-sequence star

orange dwarfKK-type star
Orange dwarfs are K-type main-sequence stars.

Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage)

blue dwarfblue dwarfsblue
A blue dwarf is a hypothesized class of very-low-mass stars that increase in temperature as they near the end of their main-sequence lifetime.

White dwarf

white dwarfswhite dwarf starcentral star
A white dwarf is a star composed of electron-degenerate matter, thought to be the final stage in the evolution of stars not massive enough to collapse into a neutron star or black hole—stars less massive than roughly 9 solar masses.

Degenerate matter

degeneratedegeneracy pressureelectron-degenerate matter
A white dwarf is a star composed of electron-degenerate matter, thought to be the final stage in the evolution of stars not massive enough to collapse into a neutron star or black hole—stars less massive than roughly 9 solar masses.

Neutron star

neutron starsdying starneutron star formation
A white dwarf is a star composed of electron-degenerate matter, thought to be the final stage in the evolution of stars not massive enough to collapse into a neutron star or black hole—stars less massive than roughly 9 solar masses.

Black hole

black holesblack-holeblackhole
A white dwarf is a star composed of electron-degenerate matter, thought to be the final stage in the evolution of stars not massive enough to collapse into a neutron star or black hole—stars less massive than roughly 9 solar masses.

Solar mass

mass of the SunSun's masssolar masses
A white dwarf is a star composed of electron-degenerate matter, thought to be the final stage in the evolution of stars not massive enough to collapse into a neutron star or black hole—stars less massive than roughly 9 solar masses.

Black dwarf

Sun will have cooled
A black dwarf is a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently such that it no longer emits any visible light.

Brown dwarf

brown dwarfsbrown dwarvesPlanetar
A brown dwarf is a substellar object not massive enough to ever fuse hydrogen into helium, but still massive enough to fuse deuterium—less than about 0.08 solar masses and more than about 13 Jupiter masses.

Substellar object

substellarsmaller solid objectssub-stellar object
A brown dwarf is a substellar object not massive enough to ever fuse hydrogen into helium, but still massive enough to fuse deuterium—less than about 0.08 solar masses and more than about 13 Jupiter masses.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
A brown dwarf is a substellar object not massive enough to ever fuse hydrogen into helium, but still massive enough to fuse deuterium—less than about 0.08 solar masses and more than about 13 Jupiter masses.

Helium

Hesuperfluid heliumhelium II
A brown dwarf is a substellar object not massive enough to ever fuse hydrogen into helium, but still massive enough to fuse deuterium—less than about 0.08 solar masses and more than about 13 Jupiter masses.

Deuterium

deuterondeuteronsD
A brown dwarf is a substellar object not massive enough to ever fuse hydrogen into helium, but still massive enough to fuse deuterium—less than about 0.08 solar masses and more than about 13 Jupiter masses.