Dynamic time warping
Alignment of 27 avian influenza hemagglutinin protein sequences colored by residue conservation (top) and residue properties (bottom)
Index plot of 10 family life sequences
Collage of images representing different academic disciplines
Edit distance matrix for two words using cost of substitution as 1 and cost of deletion or insertion as 0.5
Two repetitions of a walking sequence recorded using a motion-capture system. While there are differences in walking speed between repetitions, the spatial paths of limbs remain highly similar.
A profile HMM modelling a multiple sequence alignment

The method was tailored to social sciences from a technique originally introduced to study molecular biology (protein or genetic) sequences (see sequence alignment).

- Optimal matching

A well-known application has been automatic speech recognition, to cope with different speaking speeds.

- Dynamic time warping

It is closely related to pairwise string alignments.

- Levenshtein distance

The optimal match is denoted by the match that satisfies all the restrictions and the rules and that has the minimal cost, where the cost is computed as the sum of absolute differences, for each matched pair of indices, between their values.

- Dynamic time warping

This sequence alignment method is often used in time series classification.

- Dynamic time warping

Around this time Soviet researchers invented the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm and used it to create a recognizer capable of operating on a 200-word vocabulary.

- Speech recognition

The loss function is usually the Levenshtein distance, though it can be different distances for specific tasks; the set of possible transcriptions is, of course, pruned to maintain tractability.

- Speech recognition

The methods used for biological sequence alignment have also found applications in other fields, most notably in natural language processing and in social sciences, where the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm is usually referred to as Optimal matching.

- Sequence alignment
Dynamic time warping

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