A report on XinjiangUyghurs and Dzungaria

Ili River
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
A Uyghur girde naan baker
Heaven Lake of Tian Shan
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Uyghur man in traditional clothing, playing a tambur, a traditional Uyghur instrument.
Kanas Lake
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
A possible Tocharian or Sogdian monk (left) with an East Asian Buddhist monk (right). A fresco from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, dated to the 9th or 10th century (Kara-Khoja Kingdom).
Bayanbulak Grassland
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Uyghur hunter in Kashgar
Dzungaria (red) and the Tarim Basin (blue)
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
Uyghur schoolchildren in Kashgar (2011)
Northern Xinjiang - Dzungarian Basin (yellow), Eastern Xinjiang - Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (red), Southern Xinjiang - Tarim Basin (blue)
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
Uyghur princes from Cave 9 of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, Xinjiang, China, 8th–9th century AD, wall painting
A map of the Dzungar Khanate, by a Swedish officer in captivity there in 1716-1733, which include the region known today as Zhetysu
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
An 8th-century Uyghur Khagan
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
Uyghur Khaganate in geopolitical context c. 820 AD
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
Chagatai Khanate (Moghulistan) in 1490
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
Ethnolinguistic map of Xinjiang in 1967
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Map showing the distribution of ethnicities in Xinjiang according to census figures from 2000, the prefectures with Uyghur majorities are in blue.
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Protesters Amsterdam with the Flag of East Turkestan
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
A Uyghur mosque in Khotan
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Map of language families in Xinjiang
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Leaf from an Uyghur-Manichaean version of the ‘‘Arzhang’’.
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
Uyghur Meshrep musicians in Yarkand
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Wall painting at Bezeklik caves in Flaming Mountains, Turpan Depression.
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Xinjiang carpet factory
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Uyghur polu (پولۇ, полу)
Taklamakan Desert
Doppa Maker, traditional Uyghur hats, Kashgar
Tianchi Lake
A Uyghur man having his head shaved in a bazaar. Shaving of head is now seen mostly among the older generation.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Uyghur girl in clothing made of fabric with design distinctive to the Uyghurs
Kanas Lake
Uyghur women on their way to work, Kashgar. 2011
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

Dzungaria (also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or literally züüngar, Mongolian for "left hand") is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it is also known as Beijiang.

- Dzungaria

The Uyghurs are recognized as native to the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Northwest China.

- Uyghurs

It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Turkic Uyghur, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, the Han, Tibetans, Hui, Chinese Tajiks (Pamiris), Mongols, Russians and Sibe.

- Xinjiang

At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria was inhabited by steppe-dwelling, nomadic Tibetan-Buddhist Dzungar people, while the Tarim Basin was inhabited by sedentary, oasis-dwelling, Turkic-speaking Muslim farmers, now known as the Uyghur people.

- Dzungaria

The rest of Xinjiang's Uyghurs mostly live in Ürümqi, the capital city of Xinjiang, which is located in the historical region of Dzungaria.

- Uyghurs

Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range, and only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.

- Xinjiang

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Overall

The Tarim Basin is the oval-shaped desert in Central Asia.

Tarim Basin

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Endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about 888,000 km2 and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.

Endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about 888,000 km2 and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.

The Tarim Basin is the oval-shaped desert in Central Asia.
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Tarim basin ancient boats; they were used for burials
NASA landsat photo of the Tarim Basin
The Tarim Basin, 2008
Tarim Basin in the 3rd century
Tarim mummies, found in westernmost Xinjiang, within the Tarim Basin.
Fragmentary painting on silk of a woman playing the go boardgame, from the Astana Cemetery, Gaochang, c. 744 AD, during the late period of Tang Chinese rule (just before the An Lushan Rebellion)
Map of Taizong's campaigns against the Tarim Basin oasis states, allies of the Western Turks.
A document from Khotan written in Khotanese Saka, part of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages, listing the animals of the Chinese zodiac in the cycle of predictions for people born in that year; ink on paper, early 9th century
Uyghur princes from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan, Kingdom of Qocho, 8th-9th centuries
An Islamic cemetery outside the Afaq Khoja Mausoleum in Kashgar
Subashi Buddhist temple ruins
Northern Xinjiang (Dzungar Basin) (yellow), Eastern Xinjiang - Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (red), and the Tarim Basin (blue)
Uyghurs in Khotan
Fresco, with Hellenistic influences, from a stupa shrine, Miran
Painting of a Christian woman, Khocho (Gaochang), early period of Chinese Tang rule, 602–654 AD

Located in China's Xinjiang region, it is sometimes used synonymously to refer to the southern half of the province, or Nanjiang, as opposed to the northern half of the province known as Dzungaria or Beijiang.

At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic Mongolic speaking, Tibetan Buddhist Dzungars, while the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic speaking Muslim farmers, now known as the Uyghur people.

Clear script on rocks near Almaty

Dzungar people

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The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züün'gar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Mongol Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züün'gar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Mongol Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Clear script on rocks near Almaty

This confederation rose to power in what became known as Dzungaria between the Altai Mountains and the Ili River Valley.

The Dzungars who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.

Anti-Dzungar Uyghur rebels from the Turfan and Hami oases had submitted to Qing rule as vassals and requested Qing help for overthrowing Dzungar rule.

Dzungar Khanate in around 18th century with modern borders

Dzungar Khanate

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Inner Asian khanate of Oirat Mongol origin.

Inner Asian khanate of Oirat Mongol origin.

Dzungar Khanate in around 18th century with modern borders
Dzungar Khanate in around 18th century with modern borders
The Oirats in 1616
Mongolia following defeat of Ligdan Khan
Dzungar Khanate before Galdan's invasion of Khalkha in 1688
Qing Dzungar wars from 1688 to 1757
The last Dzungar Khan Dawachi in Qing robes after his defeat
The Dzungar Khanate in 1750
This map fragment shows territories of Oirats as in 1706. (Map Collection of the Library of Congress: "Carte de Tartarie" of Guillaume de L'Isle (1675–1726))
The Dzungar and Kalmyk states (a fragment of the map of Russian Empire of Peter the Great, that was created by a Swedish soldier in c. 1725)
A map of the Dzungar Khanate, by a Swedish officer in captivity there in 1716–33, which include the region known today as Zhetysu
Zhaohui receives the surrender of Dawachi at Ili 1755
"Storming of the Camp at Gädän-Ola" a scroll depicting a raid in 1755 in which the Kalmuk Ayusi, having gone to the Chinese side, attacks Dawa achi's camp on Mount Gadan.
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu,1756. Chinese general Zhao Hui attacked the Zunghars at night in present Wusu, Xinjiang.
"The Victory of Khorgos" The partisans of Amursana were defeated in 1758 by Prince Cäbdan-jab.
Battle of Khurungui, 1758. General Zhao Hui ambushes and defeats the Zungarian forces of Amoursana on Mount Khurungui (near Almaty, Kazakhstan).
The surrender of the leader Huo Jisi of Us (Us-Turfan in Uyghur) in 1758
Zhao Hui was unable to take Yarkand, moved east but was forced to retreat by the rebels, who lay siege to him at the Black River. In 1759, Zhao Hui learnt of the imminent arrival of relief troops, and so stormed the rebel town and brought the rebellion to an end.
Battle of Qurman,1759; General Fu De, on his way to relieve the siege of Khorgos was suddenly attacked by an enemy force of 5000 Muslim cavalry and with less than 600 men Fu De defeated the Muslims.
Battle of Tonguzluq,1758; General Zhao Hui tries to take Yarkand but is defeated
Battle of Qos-Qulaq 1759, Chinese General Ming Rui defeats the Khoja army in Qos-Qulaq (north of Kara-Kul, Tajikistan).
Qing defeat the Khoja at Arcul after they had retreated following the battle of Qos-Qulaq, 1759
The Chinese army defeats the Khoja brothers (Burhān al-Dīn and Khwāja-i Jahān) in Yesil-Kol-Nor (present-day Yashil Kul, Tajikistan), 1759.
The Khan of Badakhsan Asks to Surrender, 1759.
The prisoners are presented at the palace gate of Wumen. The Emperor is also offered the head of the Khoja Huo Jizhan.
The Emperor in the Suburbs Personally Receives News of the Officers and Soldiers Distinguished in the Campaign against the Muslim Tribes
A Victory Banquet Given by the Emperor for the Distinguished Officers and Soldiers of the Rebellion of Huibu (1758-1759).

The core of the Dzungar Khanate is today part of northern Xinjiang, also called Dzungaria.

The Muslim Kazakhs and former people of the Yarkent Khanate in the Tarim Basin (now called Uyghurs), were treated poorly under by the Buddhist Dzungars, who used them as slave labor, and participated in the Qing invasion and attacked the Dzungars.

Kashgar

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Kashgar in the Kushan Empire under Kanishka the Great
Camels traversing the old silk road in 1992
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Mosque entrance in old Kashgar
Kashgar road scene, 1870s
Kashgar (c. 1759)
Kalmyk Archer, Kashgar Army in the 1870s
Night interview with Yakub Beg, King of Kashgaria, 1868
A view of the City of Kashgar in 1915
Colonel Mannerheim at the Russian Consulate in Kashgar, 1906
Sign marking previous Russian Consulate in Kashgar
Map of Kashgar (labeled as SU-FU (KASHGAR)) and surrounding region from the International Map of the World (1966)
Map including Kashgar (labeled as Kashi K'a-shih (Kashgar)) (DMA, 1983)
Cafe built on site of old British Consulate-General. Kashgar. 2011
Kashgari Musicians in 1915
Kashgar market
Woman on motorcycle. Kashgar. 2011
Uyghur family with two calves for sale at Kashgar market.
Kashgar's Sunday market.
Kashgar Airport
Kashgar railway station
Map of the region including Kashgar (1893)
thumb|Downtown Kashgar. 2011
Id Kah Mosque
Kashgar minaret at night
The tomb of Afaq Khoja
Mosque next to the tomb of Afaq Khoja.
Mao statue in the city square of Kashgar.
An old Kashgar city street.

Kashgar (قەشقەر) or Kashi is an oasis city in the Tarim Basin region of Southern Xinjiang.

The dynasty of the Chagatai Khans collapsed in 1572 with the division of the country among rival factions; soon after, two powerful Khoja factions, the White and Black Mountaineers (Ak Taghliq or Afaqi, and Kara Taghliq or Ishaqi), arose whose differences and war-making gestures, with the intermittent episode of the Oirats of Dzungaria, make up much of recorded history in Kashgar until 1759.

The 36th division General Ma Fuyuan led a Chinese Muslim army to storm Kashgar on 6 February 1934, attacking the Uighur and Kyrgyz rebels of the First East Turkestan Republic.

Qing dynasty

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Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Qing Empire in 1636
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Yixin, Prince Gong
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Yuan Shikai
Qing China in 1911
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
A Qing dynasty mandarin
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Qing China in 1832
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Patriarchal family
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

Qianlong personally led the Ten Great Campaigns to expand military control into present-day Xinjiang and Mongolia, putting down revolts and uprisings in Sichuan and parts of southern China while expanding control over Tibet.

Xinjiang, also known as Chinese Turkestan, was subdivided into the regions north and south of the Tian Shan mountains, also known today as Dzungaria and Tarim Basin respectively, but the post of Ili General was established in 1762 to exercise unified military and administrative jurisdiction over both regions.

With respect to these outer regions, the Qing maintained imperial control, with the emperor acting as Mongol khan, patron of Tibetan Buddhism and protector of Muslims.

Map including Ürümqi (labeled as TI-HUA (WU-LU-MU-CH'I)) (ATC, 1971)

Ürümqi

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Map including Ürümqi (labeled as TI-HUA (WU-LU-MU-CH'I)) (ATC, 1971)
Map including Ürümqi (labeled as WU-LU-MU-CH'I) and nearby areas from the International Map of the World (1975)
Mosque in Ürümqi
Outer Ring Road viaducts in Ürümqi at night
Buildings in Ürümqi CBDs near People's Square
People's Square
International Grand Bazaar Xinjiang
Xinjiang University of Finance and Economics.
Ürümqi No.1 High School.
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport.
Ürümqi South Railway Station.

Ürümqi ( also spelled Ürümchi or without umlauts), formerly known as Dihua (also spelled Tihwa), is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.

After the Tang retreated from the Western Regions, the region came under the control of the Uyghurs of the Khaganate and Gaochang / Qocho.

Steppe peoples had used the location, the pass between the Bogda Shan to the east and the Tian Shan to the west, connecting the Dzungar Basin to the north and the Turpan Depression to the south.

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700

Tang dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907 AD, with an interregnum between 690 and 705.

Imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907 AD, with an interregnum between 690 and 705.

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700
Portrait painting of Emperor Gaozu (born Li Yuan, 566–635), the first Tang Emperor.
Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. She first ruled through her husband and sons for almost three decades, then became emperor herself and ruled in her own right for another fifteen years.
Map of An Lushan Rebellion
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m high; begun in 713, completed in 803
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built during the late 8th century
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
A late Tang mural commemorating the victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans in 848 AD, from Mogao cave 156
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and hat of a scholar
Tang tomb figure of an official dressed in Hanfu, with a tall hat, wide-sleeved belted outer garment, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, a report to his superiors.
Civil service exam candidates gather around the wall where results had been posted. Artwork by Qiu Ying.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) receives Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, ambassador of the Tibetan Empire, at his court; later copy of an original painted in 641 by Yan Liben (600–673)
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
A 10th-century mural painting in the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang showing monastic architecture from Mount Wutai, Tang dynasty; Japanese architecture of this period was influenced by Tang Chinese architecture
Tomb figure of mounted warrior similar to the one unearthed from the tomb of Crown Prince Li Chongrun
Tomb guardian (wushi yong), early 8th century
A bas relief of a soldier and the emperor's horse, Autumn Dew, with elaborate saddle and stirrups, designed by Yan Liben, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong c. 650
Illustration of Byzantine embassy to Tang Taizong 643 CE
Tang dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寳) coin, first minted in 621 in Chang'an, a model for the Japanese 8th-century Wadōkaichin
Sancai glazed horse tomb figure
Tomb figure of a horse with a carefully sculpted saddle, decorated with leather straps and ornamental fastenings featuring eight-petalled flowers and apricot leaves.
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
Tomb Figure of a Sogdian merchant, 7th-century
A mural depicting a corner tower, most likely one of Chang'an, from the tomb of Prince Yide (d. 701) at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706
Map of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast 711, height 247 cm high, weight 6,500 kg, now in the Xi'an Bell Tower
A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, originally attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361 AD) of the Jin dynasty
A poem by Li Bai (701–762 AD), the only surviving example of Li Bai's calligraphy, housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele
A Tang dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
An 8th-century silk wall scroll from Dunhuang, showing the paradise of Amitabha
A timber hall built in 857, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
A Tang sancai-glazed carved relief showing horseback riders playing polo
A late Tang or early Five Dynasties era silk painting on a banner depicting Guanyin and a female attendant in silk robes, from the Dunhuang caves, now in the British Museum
Palace ladies in a garden from a mural of Prince Li Xian's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706
Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs
A Tang sancai-glazed lobed dish with incised decorations, 8th century
Tomb figure of a lady attendant, 7th- to 8th-century; during the Tang era, female hosts prepared feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
A rounded "offering plate" with design in "three colors" (sancai) glaze, 8th-century
A page of Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea
A square bronze mirror with a phoenix motif of gold and silver inlaid with lacquer, 8th-century
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, is the world's first widely printed book to include a specific date of printing.
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. c. 700. The whole set of star maps contains over 1,300 stars.
"Great Tang" (Dà Táng) in seal characters.
A Tang Dynasty sancai statuette of Sogdian musicians riding on a Bactrian camel, 723 AD, Xi'an.

The Uyghur khan Moyanchur was greatly excited at this prospect, and married his own daughter to the Chinese diplomatic envoy once he arrived, receiving in turn a Chinese princess as his bride.

In fact, it was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the territory of what is now Xinjiang.

In 788–789 the Chinese concluded a military alliance with the Uighur Turks who twice defeated the Tibetans, in 789 near the town of Gaochang in Dzungaria, and in 791 near Ningxia on the Yellow River.

Battle of Oroi-Jalatu

Dzungar genocide

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The mass extermination of the Mongol Dzungar people by the Qing dynasty.

The mass extermination of the Mongol Dzungar people by the Qing dynasty.

Battle of Oroi-Jalatu
Dzungar leader Amursana
Qianlong Emperor

After wiping out the native population of Dzungaria, the Qing government then resettled Han, Hui, Uyghur, and Xibe people on state farms in Dzungaria along with Manchu Bannermen to repopulate the area.

The Dzungars lived in the area stretching from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang).

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia

Mongol Empire

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The largest contiguous land empire in history.

The largest contiguous land empire in history.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
The Old World on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Genghis Khan ascended the throne in the Ikh Khuraldai region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh.
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Coronation of Ögedei Khan in 1229 as the successor of Genghis Khan. By Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from a 16th-century chronicle
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Batu Khan consolidates the Golden Horde
Güyük Khan demanding Pope Innocent IV's submission. The 1246 letter was written in Persian.
A Stone Turtle at the site of the Mongol capital, Karakorum.
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Il-Khanate. From a medieval Persian manuscript.
Mongol invasion of Baghdad
Fall of Baghdad, 1258
The extent of the Mongol Empire after the death of Möngke Khan (reigned 1251–1259).
The Mongols at war
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan dynasty
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol's bomb and Goryeo's arrows. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) Samurai Mitsui Sukenaga (right)
Samurai Shiraishi clan
Mongol warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.
The funeral of Chagatai Khan.
Mongol rider, Yuan dynasty
A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta (Golden Horde), and Öljaitü (Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.
Hungarian King Béla IV in flight from the Mongols under general Kadan of the Golden Horde.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate
Iron helmet, Mongol Empire
The Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, in which Lithuania successfully pushed the Golden Horde from the Principality of Kiev.
Crimean Tatar khan, Mengli Giray.
Reconstruction of a Mongol warrior
Mongol general Subutai of the Golden Horde
The executed – the long and full beard probably means he is not a Mongol – has been thrown off a cliff.
Persian miniature depicting Ghazan's conversion from Buddhism to Islam.
A 1363 astronomical handbook with Middle Mongolian glosses. Known as the Sanjufini Zij.
Mongols look on as Persian astronomers work. Early 14th century illustration in the Compendium of Chronicles.
A 1305 letter (on a scroll measuring 302 by) from the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü to King Philip IV of France.
Tuda Mengu of the Golden Horde.
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Map showing the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols in Mongolia, Russia, the Central Asian States, and China
Tokhtamysh and the armies of the Golden Horde initiate the Siege of Moscow (1382).
Dominican martyrs killed by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Poland in 1260.

He also encouraged literacy and the adaptation of the Uyghur script into what would become the Mongolian script of the empire, ordering the Uyghur Tata-tonga, who had previously served the khan of Naimans, to instruct his sons.

Before the forces of Batu and Güyük met, Güyük, sick and worn out by travel, died en route at Qum-Senggir (Hong-siang-yi-eulh) in Xinjiang, possibly a victim of poison.

The Kalmyks were the last Mongol nomads to penetrate European territory, having migrated to Europe from Central Asia at the turn of the 17th century. In the winter of 1770–1771, approximately 200,000 Kalmyks began the journey from their pastures on the left bank of the Volga River to Dzungaria, through the territories of their Kazakh and Kyrgyz enemies. After several months of travel, only one-third of the original group reached Dzungaria in northwest China.

Yining

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Yining (labelled as I-NING (KULDJA) 伊寧) (1952)

Yining, also known as Ghulja (غۇلجا) or Qulja (قۇلجا) and formerly Ningyuan , is a county-level city in Northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.

In 1997, in what came to be known as the Gulja Incident or massacre, the city was rocked by two days of demonstrations or riots followed by a government crack down resulting in at least 9 deaths following the execution of 30 Uighur activists.

Yining is located on the northern side of the Ili River in the Dzungarian basin, about 70 km east of the border with Kazakhstan and about 710 km west of Ürümqi.