E-book

ebooke-bookseBookselectronic bookelectronic booksdigitale-book readere-readerdigital booksdigital book
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.wikipedia
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Book

booksmonographbiblio
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Books may be distributed in electronic form as e-books and other formats.

E-reader

e-book readere-readerse-book readers
E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones.
An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital e-books and periodicals.

Flat-panel display

flat panel displayflat panelflat panel displays
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Static flat-panel displays rely on materials whose color states are bistable (e.g., e-book reader tablets from Sony), and as such, flat-panel displays retain the text or images on the screen even when the power is off.

Michael S. Hart

Michael Hart
Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S. Hart as the inventor of the e-book.
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet.

Open eBook

OEBOEBPS
Brown University's work in electronic book systems continued for many years, including US Navy funded projects for electronic repair-manuals; a large-scale distributed hypermedia system known as InterMedia; a spinoff company Electronic Book Technologies that built DynaText, the first SGML-based e-reader system; and the Scholarly Technology Group's extensive work on the Open eBook standard.
Open eBook (or OEB), or formally, the Open eBook Publication Structure (OEBPS), is a legacy e-book format which has been superseded by the EPUB format.

Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg Literary Archive FoundationGutenberg ProjectProject Gutenberg Text
After Hart first adapted the Declaration of Independence into an electronic document in 1971, Project Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts - especially books.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

Data Discman

Sony Data Discman
In 1992, Sony launched the Data Discman, an electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs.
The Data Discman is an electronic book player introduced to the Western market in late 1991 or early 1992 by Sony Corporation.

Electronic publishing

online publicationdigital publishingelectronic publication
However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishing, citing issues with user demand, copyright piracy and challenges with proprietary devices and systems.
Electronic publishing (also referred to as e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.

Apple Books

iBooksiBookstoreiBooks Store
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader. Apple releases iBooks Author, software for creating iPad e-books to be directly published in its iBooks bookstore or to be shared as PDF files.
Apple Books is an e-book reading and store application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices.

Ángela Ruiz Robles

Ángela '''Ruiz Robles
In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from León, Spain, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles.
Angela Ruiz Robles (March 28, 1895 Villamanín, Leon - October 27, 1975, Ferrol, A Coruña) was a Spanish teacher, writer, pioneer and inventor of the mechanical precursor to the electronic book.

Comparison of e-book formats

e-book file formateReader.mobi
Amazon buys Mobipocket, the creator of the mobi e-book file format and e-reader software.
The following is a comparison of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books.

Public domain

public domain resourcepublic-domainPD
Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format.
Project Gutenberg makes tens of thousands of public domain books available online as ebooks.

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital rights management (DRM)
Adobe and Sony agree to share their technologies (Adobe Reader and DRM) with each other.
Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, and e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive, also use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services.

Barnes & Noble Nook

NookNook e-readerBarnes & Noble
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader.
Nook users may read nearly any Nook Store e-book, digital magazines or newspapers for one hour once per day while connected to the store's Wi-Fi.

IBooks Author

Apple releases iBooks Author, software for creating iPad e-books to be directly published in its iBooks bookstore or to be shared as PDF files.
iBooks Author (iBA) is an e-book authoring application by Apple Inc.

Macmillan Publishers

MacmillanPan MacmillanThe Macmillan Company
The "Big Five" publishers include: Hachette, HarperCollins, Macmillan, Penguin Random House and Simon & Schuster. US Department of Justice prepares anti-trust lawsuit against Apple, Simon & Schuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin Group, Macmillan, and HarperCollins, alleging collusion to increase the price of books sold on Amazon.
By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market.

Kobo eReader

KoboKobo Clara HDKobo platform
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader. Kobo Inc. releases an updated Kobo eReader, which included Wi-Fi. In Canada, The Sentimentalists won the prestigious national Giller Prize in 2010. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was not widely available in printed form so the e-book edition became the top-selling title for Kobo devices that year.
The original version was released in May 2010 and was marketed as a minimalist alternative to the more expensive e-book readers available at the time.

Oyster (company)

Oyster
In September, Oyster launches its unlimited access e-book subscription service.
Oyster was a streaming service for digital e-books, available for Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, and NOOK HD/HD+ devices.

Amazon Kindle

KindleAmazon's KindleKindle Direct Publishing
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader. In July 2010, online bookseller Amazon.com reported sales of e-books for its proprietary Kindle outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no digital edition.
Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store.

Cybook Gen1

Cybook
The Cybook was sold and manufactured at first by Cytale (1998–2003) and later by Bookeen.

Kobo Inc.

KoboKobo Ince-books
Kobo Inc. releases an updated Kobo eReader, which included Wi-Fi.
Rakuten Kobo Inc., or simply Kobo, is a Canadian company which sells e-books, audiobooks, e-readers and tablet computers.

Book scanning

book scannerrobotic book scannerscanning
Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing hard-copy books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of robotic book scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition.
Book scanning or book digitization (also: magazine scanning or magazine digitization) is the process of converting physical books and magazines into digital media such as images, electronic text, or electronic books (e-books) by using an image scanner.

The Sentimentalists (novel)

The Sentimentalists
In Canada, The Sentimentalists won the prestigious national Giller Prize in 2010. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was not widely available in printed form so the e-book edition became the top-selling title for Kobo devices that year.
However, the paper book's unavailability resulted in a significant increase in ebook sales; the ebook version of the novel quickly became the top-selling title for Kobo devices, outselling even George W. Bush's memoir Decision Points.

Hachette Book Group

HachetteWarner BooksGrand Central Publishing
US Department of Justice prepares anti-trust lawsuit against Apple, Simon & Schuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin Group, Macmillan, and HarperCollins, alleging collusion to increase the price of books sold on Amazon.
The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law.

Borders Group

BordersBorders BookstoreBorders Books
Kim Blagg, via her company Books OnScreen, began selling multimedia-enhanced e-books on CDs through retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Borders Books.
On July 7, 2010, Borders opened an eBook store to allow books to be directly downloaded to an e-reader device or a Borders eReader app for the desktop, iPhone, iPad, BlackBerry, or Android.