E-book

ebooke-bookseBookselectronic bookelectronic booksdigitale-book readere-readerdigital booksdigital book
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.wikipedia
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Book

booksmonographbiblio
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Books may be distributed in electronic form as e-books and other formats.

E-reader

e-book readere-readerse-book readers
E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. The e-books sold by most major publishers and electronic retailers, which are Amazon.com, Google, Barnes & Noble, Kobo Inc. and Apple Inc., are DRM-protected and tied to the publisher's e-reader software or hardware.
An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital e-books and periodicals.

Flat-panel display

flat panel displayflat panelflat panel displays
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Static flat-panel displays rely on materials whose color states are bistable (e.g., e-book reader tablets from Sony), and as such, flat-panel displays retain the text or images on the screen even when the power is off.

Michael S. Hart

Michael Hart
Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S. Hart as the inventor of the e-book.
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet.

Open eBook

OEBOEB Package FormatOEBPS
Brown University's work in electronic book systems continued for many years, including US Navy funded projects for electronic repair-manuals; a large-scale distributed hypermedia system known as InterMedia; a spinoff company Electronic Book Technologies that built DynaText, the first SGML-based e-reader system; and the Scholarly Technology Group's extensive work on the Open eBook standard.
Open eBook (or OEB), or formally, the Open eBook Publication Structure (OEBPS), is a legacy e-book format which has been superseded by the EPUB format.

Project Gutenberg

Gutenberg ProjectGutenberg.orgProject Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
After Hart first adapted the U.S. Declaration of Independence into an electronic document in 1971, Project Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts, especially books.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

Data Discman

SEBASSony Chile DiscmanSony Data Discman
In 1992, Sony launched the Data Discman, an electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs.
The Data Discman is an electronic book player introduced to the Western market in late 1991 or early 1992 by Sony Corporation.

E-book lending

In 2003, libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an e-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries.
E-book lending or elending is a practice in which access to already-purchased downloads or online reads of e-books is made available on a time-limited basis to others.

Electronic publishing

online publicationdigital publishingelectronic publication
Despite the widespread adoption of e-books, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishing, citing issues with user demand, copyright infringement and challenges with proprietary devices and systems.
Electronic publishing (also referred to as e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.

OverDrive, Inc.

OverDriveOverDrive eBooks & eAudiobooksRakuten OverDrive
Content from public libraries can be downloaded to e-readers using application software like Overdrive and Hoopla.
Rakuten OverDrive, Inc. is an American digital distributor of eBooks, audiobooks, music, and video titles.

Amazon Kindle

KindleKindle PaperwhiteKindle books
In July 2010, online bookseller Amazon.com reported sales of e-books for its proprietary Kindle outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no digital edition. Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader.
Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store.

Ángela Ruiz Robles

Ángela '''Ruiz Robles
In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, Spain, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles.
Angela Ruiz Robles (March 28, 1895 Villamanín, Leon - October 27, 1975, Ferrol, A Coruña) was a Spanish teacher, writer, pioneer and inventor of the mechanical precursor to the electronic book.

Apple Books

iBooksiBookstoreiBooks Store
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader.
Apple Books, formerly iBooks, is an e-book reading and store application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices.

Hoopla (digital media service)

HooplaHoopla Digital
Content from public libraries can be downloaded to e-readers using application software like Overdrive and Hoopla.
Hoopla is a web and mobile (Android/iOS ) library media streaming platform for audio books, comics, e-books, movies, music, and TV.

Public domain

public domain resourcepublic-domainPD
Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format.
Project Gutenberg makes tens of thousands of public domain books available online as ebooks.

Comparison of e-book formats

e-book file formate-book formatseReader
The following is a comparison of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books.

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital restrictions management
Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the digital rights management tied to their products.
Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, and e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive, also use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services.

Macmillan Publishers

MacmillanPan MacmillanMacmillan Company
The "Big Five" publishers are: Hachette, HarperCollins, Macmillan, Penguin Random House and Simon & Schuster.
By some estimates, as of 2009, e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market.

IBooks Author

iBooks Author (iBA) is an e-book authoring application by Apple Inc.

Barnes & Noble Nook

NookNook GlowlightBarnes & Noble
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader.
Nook users may read nearly any Nook Store e-book, digital magazines or newspapers for one hour once per day while connected to the store's Wi-Fi.

Kobo eReader

KoboKobo Aura H2OKobo Clara HD
Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader.
The original version was released in May 2010 and was marketed as a minimalist alternative to the more expensive e-book readers available at the time.

Oyster (company)

Oyster
Oyster was a streaming service for digital e-books, available for Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, and NOOK HD/HD+ devices.

Kindle Store

KindleKindle EditionKindle Unlimited
The Kindle Store is an online e-book e-commerce store operated by Amazon as part of its retail website and can be accessed from any Amazon Kindle, Fire tablet or Kindle mobile app.

Kobo Inc.

KoboKobo IncRakuten Kobo
The e-books sold by most major publishers and electronic retailers, which are Amazon.com, Google, Barnes & Noble, Kobo Inc. and Apple Inc., are DRM-protected and tied to the publisher's e-reader software or hardware.
Rakuten Kobo Inc., or simply Kobo, is a Canadian company which sells e-books, audiobooks, e-readers and tablet computers.