ECMAScript

ES6ECMAScript 6ECMAES5JavaScriptECMA scriptECMA's Test262ECMA-262ECMAScript 3ECMAScript 5
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.wikipedia
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JavaScript

JSclient-side JavaScriptserver-side JavaScript
It was created to standardize JavaScript, so as to foster multiple independent implementations.
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.

JScript

Managed JScript
JavaScript has remained the best-known implementation of ECMAScript since the standard was first published, with other well-known implementations including JScript and ActionScript.
JScript is Microsoft's dialect of the ECMAScript standard that is used in Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

ActionScript

ActionScript 3object-oriented programming languageActionScript 3.0
JavaScript has remained the best-known implementation of ECMAScript since the standard was first published, with other well-known implementations including JScript and ActionScript.
It is now a dialect of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript), though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk.

Ecma International

ECMAEuropean Computer Manufacturer's AssociationEuropean Computer Manufacturers Association
is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
ECMA-262 – ECMAScript Language Specification (based on JavaScript)

Node.js

NodeJSNodeio.js
ECMAScript is commonly used for client-side scripting on the World Wide Web, and it is increasingly being used for writing server applications and services using Node.js.
This brought V8 ES6 features into Node.js, and a long-term support release cycle.

Tamarin (software)

TamarinMozilla Tamarin
For example, Tamarin – the virtual machine for ActionScript, developed and open sourced by Adobe – has just-in-time compilation (JIT) support for certain classes of scripts.
Tamarin is a free software virtual machine with just-in-time compilation (JIT) support intended to implement the 4th edition of the ECMAScript (ES4) language standard.

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
ECMAScript is commonly used for client-side scripting on the World Wide Web, and it is increasingly being used for writing server applications and services using Node.js.
The standardised version is ECMAScript.

Regular expression

regular expressionsregexregexp
Regex support is part of the standard library of many programming languages, including Java and Python, and is built into the syntax of others, including Perl and ECMAScript.

Netscape

Netscape CommunicationsNetscape Communications CorporationNetscape.com
The ECMAScript specification is a standardized specification of a scripting language developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape; initially it was named Mocha, later LiveScript, and finally JavaScript.
These had more features than the old Netscape version, including better support of HTML 4, CSS, DOM, and ECMAScript; eventually, the more advanced Internet Explorer 5.0 became the market leader.

Mike Cowlishaw

Michael F. CowlishawCowlishaw, M. F.
He has contributed to and/or edited various computing standards, including ISO (SGML, COBOL, C, C++), BSI (SGML, C), ANSI (REXX), IETF (HTTP 1.0/RFC 1945), W3C (XML Schema), ECMA (JavaScript/ECMAScript, C#, CLI), and IEEE (754 decimal floating-point).

Guy L. Steele Jr.

Guy SteeleGuy L. SteeleSteele
Steele has served on accredited standards committees ECMA TC39 (ECMAScript, for which he was editor of the first edition), X3J11 (the C language), and X3J3 (Fortran) and is currently chairman of X3J13 (Common Lisp).

JSON

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)JSON-likedictionary
These fixes and others, and support for JSON encoding/decoding, have been folded into the ECMAScript, 5th Edition specification.
, all major browsers support at least the fifth edition ECMAScript which provides a safe and fast method of decoding JSON:

Internet Explorer

IEMicrosoft Internet ExplorerExplorer
In late 2007, a debate between Eich, later the Mozilla Foundation's CTO, and Chris Wilson, Microsoft's platform architect for Internet Explorer, became public on a number of blogs.
It also provides its own dialect of ECMAScript called JScript.

Dynamic web page

client-side scriptingdynamic contentdynamic web content
ECMAScript is commonly used for client-side scripting on the World Wide Web, and it is increasingly being used for writing server applications and services using Node.js.
The first widespread use of JavaScript was in 1997, when the language was standardized as ECMAScript and implemented in Netscape 3.

ECMAScript for XML

E4X
In June 2004, Ecma International published ECMA-357 standard, defining an extension to ECMAScript, known as ECMAScript for XML (E4X).
ECMAScript for XML (E4X) is the standard ISO/IEC 22537:2006 programming language extension that adds native XML support to ECMAScript (which includes ActionScript, JavaScript, and JScript).

Futures and promises

futurespromisesfuture
Other new features include iterators and for/of loops, Python-style generators, arrow functions, binary data, typed arrays, collections (maps, sets and weak maps), promises, number and math enhancements, reflection, and proxies (metaprogramming for virtual objects and wrappers).
JavaScript (limited, as of ECMAScript 6)

Reflection (computer programming)

reflectionreflectivecomputational reflection
The following is an example in ECMAScript, and therefore also applies to JavaScript and ActionScript:

List of ECMAScript engines

List of ECMAScript engines
An ECMAScript engine is a program that executes source code written in a version of the ECMAScript language standard, for example, JavaScript.

SpiderMonkey

Mozilla's SpiderMonkeySpiderMonkey JavaScript engineSpidermonkey/TraceMonkey/JägerMonkey/IonMonkey
SpiderMonkey implements ECMA-262 edition 5.1 (ECMAScript) and several added features.

Python (programming language)

PythonPython programming languagePython 3
Other new features include iterators and for/of loops, Python-style generators, arrow functions, binary data, typed arrays, collections (maps, sets and weak maps), promises, number and math enhancements, reflection, and proxies (metaprogramming for virtual objects and wrappers).
ECMAScript borrowed iterators and generators from Python.

Modular programming

modulesmodularmodule
a module system,
JavaScript has had native modules since ECMAScript 2015.

Scripting language

scriptingscriptscripts
is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
Standard examples of scripting languages for specific environments include: Bash, for the Unix or Unix-like operating systems; ECMAScript (JavaScript), for web browsers; and Visual Basic for Applications, for Microsoft Office applications.

Google Chrome

ChromeChrome browserGoogle Chrome Extension
, Chrome has very good support for JavaScript/ECMAScript according to Ecma International's ECMAScript standards conformance Test 262 (version ES5.1 May 18, 2012).

Prototype-based programming

prototype-basedprototypeprototypes
The ECMAScript language includes structured, dynamic, functional, and prototype-based features.
ECMAScript

Chakra (JavaScript engine)

ChakraChakra Core
Chakra supports ECMAScript 5.1 with partial support for ECMAScript 6.