Eadweard Muybridge

Muybridge[Eadweard] MuybridgeEadward MuybridgeEdweard MuybridgeZoopraxiscope
Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.wikipedia
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Movie projector

projectorfilm projectorprojectors
Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.
The first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879.

Cinematography

cinematographercinematographiccinema
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.
On 19 June 1873, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named "Sallie Gardner" in fast motion using a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras.

Zoopraxiscope

Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.
It was conceived by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879 (and built for him by January 1880 to project his famous chronophotographic pictures in motion and thus prove that these were authentic).

Film

motion picturemoviecinema
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.
The sensitivity was gradually improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time.

Norman Selfe

His cousin Norman Selfe, who also grew up in Kingston upon Thames, moved to Australia and, following a family tradition, became a renowned engineer.
Selfe's cousin Edward Muggeridge grew up in the same town but moved to the United States in 1855, restyled himself Eadweard Muybridge, and achieved global fame as a pioneer in the new field of photography.

Modoc War

expedition against the ModocModocModoc Indian Campaign
In 1873, Muybridge was commissioned by the US Army to photograph the Modoc War being conducted a Native American tribe in northern California and Oregon.
Eadweard Muybridge photographed the early part of the US Army's campaign.

Sallie Gardner at a Gallop

Sallie Gardnersuccessfully photographeda series of photographs
The study is called Sallie Gardner at a Gallop or The Horse in Motion; it shows images of the horse with all feet off the ground.
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, also known as The Horse in Motion, is a series of photographs consisting of a galloping horse, the result of a photographic experiment by Eadweard Muybridge on June 15, 1878.

Surrey

County of SurreySurrey, EnglandSRY
Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge; he had three brothers.
Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), photographer, was born and raised in Kingston, then part of Surrey.

Kingston upon Thames

KingstonKingston-upon-ThamesKingston upon Thames, England
Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge; he had three brothers.
Also commemorated at the University is photographer Eadweard Muybridge who was born at Kingston and changed the spelling of his first name in reference to the name of the Saxon king on the Coronation Stone.

The Photographer

The American composer Philip Glass composed an opera, The Photographer, with a libretto based in part on court transcripts from the case.
The libretto is based on the life and homicide trial of 19th-century English photographer Eadweard Muybridge.

William Rulofson

Rulofson
His stereographs, the popular format of the time, were sold by various galleries and photographic entrepreneurs (most notably the firm of Bradley & Rulofson) on Montgomery Street, San Francisco.
The pair were responsible for numerous portraits of leading Californians and also were noted for publishing the works of Eadweard Muybridge.

Philip Glass

GlassPhillip GlassGlass, Philip
The American composer Philip Glass composed an opera, The Photographer, with a libretto based in part on court transcripts from the case.
While planning a third part of his "Portrait Trilogy", Glass turned to smaller music theatre projects such as the non-narrative Madrigal Opera (for six voices and violin and viola, 1980), and The Photographer, a biographic study on the photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1982).

Woodward's Gardens

Woodwards Gardens
Early in his new career, Muybridge was hired by Robert B. Woodward (1824–1879) to take extensive photos of his Woodward's Gardens, a combination amusement park, zoo, museum, and aquarium that opened in San Francisco in 1866.
Early in his career, photographer Eadweard Muybridge took many photographs of the Gardens.

San Francisco

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco, CACity and County of San Francisco
At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York, and then to San Francisco.
During the 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge began recording motion photographically and invented a zoopraxiscope with which to view his recordings.

Kingston Museum

Kingston Art Gallery fromKingston Museum & Art GalleryKingston Museum Art Gallery
In 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.
The Eadweard Muybridge Gallery is devoted to the pioneering photographer (1830-1904) who was born and died in Kingston.

High-speed photography

high-speedhigh speed photographyhigh speed
Harold Eugene Edgerton — c.1930 pioneered stroboscopic and high speed photography and film, producing an Oscar-winning short movie and many striking photographic sequences
The first practical application of high-speed photography was Eadweard Muybridge's 1878 investigation into whether horses' feet were actually all off the ground at once during a gallop.

Sol LeWitt

LeWittSol LeWitt-style
Sol LeWitt - Contemporary American artist was inspired by Muybridge's serial investigations. LeWitt explicitly pays homage to the photographer in Muybridge I and II (1964).
Around that time, LeWitt also discovered the work of the late 19th-century photographer Eadweard Muybridge, whose studies in sequence and locomotion were an early influence.

World's Columbian Exposition

Chicago World's Fair1893 Chicago World's Fair1893 World's Fair
At the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, Muybridge presented a series of lectures on the "Science of Animal Locomotion" in the Zoopraxographical Hall, built specially for that purpose in the "Midway Plaisance" arm of the exposition.
Eadweard Muybridge gave a series of lectures on the Science of Animal Locomotion in the Zoopraxographical Hall, built specially for that purpose on Midway Plaisance.

Bullet time

bullet-timeDead Eyeslow-motion
This is often dubbed "bullet time" photography.
It dates back to the 19th-century experiments by Eadweard Muybridge.

Leland Stanford

LelandStanfordGovernor Stanford
In 1872, the former governor of California, Leland Stanford, a businessman and race-horse owner, hired Muybridge for some photographic studies.
In 1872 Stanford commissioned the photographer Eadweard Muybridge to undertake scientific studies of the gaits of horses at a trot and gallop at his Palo Alto Stock Farm.

Étienne-Jules Marey

MareyEtienne-Jules Mareychronophotographic gun
Recent scholarship has noted that in his later work, Muybridge was influenced by, and in turn influenced the French photographer Étienne-Jules Marey.
The English photographer Eadweard Muybridge carried out his "Photographic Investigation" in Palo Alto, California, to prove that Marey was right when he wrote that a galloping horse for a brief moment had all four hooves off the ground.

Palo Alto Stock Farm Horse Barn

Palo Alto Stock Farm
Muybridge planned to take a series of photographs on 15 June 1878, at Stanford's Palo Alto Stock Farm (now the campus of Stanford University).
In c.1877, photographer Eadweard Muybridge's series of stop-action photographs of horses running Sallie Gardner at a Gallop was photographed at Palo Alto Stock Farm.

Thomas Eakins

EakinsPaintings of Thomas Eakins, a group of rowing scenes, first and most famousScenes from Modern Life
During 1884, the painter Thomas Eakins briefly worked alongside him, to learn more about the application of photography to the study of human and animal motion.
In the late 1870s, Eakins was introduced to the photographic motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge, particularly the equine studies, and became interested in using the camera to study sequential movement.

Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2

Nude Descending a StaircaseNu descendant un escalier n° 2Nude Descending a Stair
Marcel Duchamp — artist, painted Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, inspired by multiple-exposure photography in 1912
Duchamp also recognized the influence of the stop-motion photography of Étienne-Jules Marey, particularly Muybridge's Woman Walking Downstairs from his 1887 picture series, published as The Human Figure in Motion.

Chronophotography

chronophotographerchronophotographicchronophotographs
While Marey's scientific achievements in the realms of cardiology and aerodynamics (as well as pioneering work in photography and chronophotography) are indisputable, Muybridge's efforts were to some degree more artistic rather than scientific.
In 1872, Leland Stanford, former governor of California and horse enthusiast, hired Eadweard Muybridge to provide photographic proof that at some instants a galloping horse has all four hooves off the ground.