Early Buddhist schools

Map of the major geographical centers of major Buddhist schools in South Asia, at around the time of Xuanzang's visit in the seventh century. * Red: non-Pudgalavāda Sarvāstivāda school * Orange: non-Dharmaguptaka Vibhajyavāda schools * Yellow: Mahāsāṃghika * Green: Pudgalavāda (Green) * Gray: Dharmaguptaka Note the red and grey schools already gave some original ideas of Mahayana Buddhism and the Sri Lankan section (see Tamrashatiya) of the orange school is the origin of modern Theravada Buddhism.

The early Buddhist schools are those schools into which the Buddhist monastic saṅgha split early in the history of Buddhism.

- Early Buddhist schools
Map of the major geographical centers of major Buddhist schools in South Asia, at around the time of Xuanzang's visit in the seventh century. * Red: non-Pudgalavāda Sarvāstivāda school * Orange: non-Dharmaguptaka Vibhajyavāda schools * Yellow: Mahāsāṃghika * Green: Pudgalavāda (Green) * Gray: Dharmaguptaka Note the red and grey schools already gave some original ideas of Mahayana Buddhism and the Sri Lankan section (see Tamrashatiya) of the orange school is the origin of modern Theravada Buddhism.

81 related topics

Relevance

Central Asian Buddhist monk teaching a Chinese monk. Bezeklik Caves, 9th-10th century; although Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian, modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasoid figures of [[:File:BezeklikSogdianMerchants.jpg|the same cave temple]] (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians, an Eastern Iranian people who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th-8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th-13th century).

Dharmaguptaka

Central Asian Buddhist monk teaching a Chinese monk. Bezeklik Caves, 9th-10th century; although Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian, modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasoid figures of [[:File:BezeklikSogdianMerchants.jpg|the same cave temple]] (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians, an Eastern Iranian people who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th-8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th-13th century).
Full bhikṣuṇī ordination is common in the Dharmaguptaka lineage. Vesak festival, Taiwan
Bhikṣus performing a traditional Buddhist ceremony in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China

The Dharmaguptaka (Sanskrit: धर्मगुप्तक; ) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools, depending on the source.

Gangetic plain during the pre-Nanda era.

Early Buddhist texts

Gangetic plain during the pre-Nanda era.
Ashoka Minor Rock Edict No.3
Burmese-Pali Palm-leaf manuscript.
Gold Plates containing fragments of the Pali Tipitaka (5th century) found in Maunggan (a village near the city of Sriksetra).
Gandhara birchbark scroll fragments (c. 1st century) from British Library Collection

Early Buddhist texts (EBTs), early Buddhist literature or early Buddhist discourses are parallel texts shared by the early Buddhist schools.

Tripiṭaka manuscript from Thailand

Tripiṭaka

Traditional term for ancient collections of Buddhist sacred scriptures.

Traditional term for ancient collections of Buddhist sacred scriptures.

Tripiṭaka manuscript from Thailand
Tripiṭaka manuscripts on Gold Plate, Burma
The woodblock of Tripiṭaka Koreana in Haeinsa, Hapcheon, South Korea.
Tripiṭaka writing
The Kuthodaw Pagoda, consisting of 729 stupas containing the world's largest book, the Tripiṭaka on marble tablets, at Mandalay, Myanmar.
Kangyur writing with gold
Pali Canon
Tripitaka Koreana
Tibetan Buddhist Tripitaka

Each of the early Buddhist Schools likely had their own versions of the Tripiṭaka.

Sanghamitta bringing the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka. Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara

Bhikkhunī

Fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.

Fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.

Sanghamitta bringing the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka. Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara
Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, the first modern Thai woman to receive full ordination as a Theravada bhikkhuni and Abbess of Songdhammakalyani Monastery, the only temple in Thailand where there are bhikkhunis.
A Vietnamese bhiksuni
Chân Không, bhikkhuni in the Order of Interbeing
A Taiwanese bhikṣuṇī, a member of the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage.
A high-ranking bhikṣuṇī in the Chinese Buddhist tradition during an alms round.
Full bhikṣuṇī ordination is common in the Dharmaguptaka lineage. Vesak, Taiwan
Head shaving before a Tibetan Buddhist nun's ordination. Spiti, India 2004
Novice nuns, Key Monastery, Spiti, India. 2004

A famous work of the early Buddhist schools is the Therigatha, a collection of poems by elder nuns about enlightenment that was preserved in the Pāli Canon.

Burmese Kammavaca manuscript written in Pali in the 'Burmese' script.

Nikāya

Pāli word meaning "volume".

Pāli word meaning "volume".

Burmese Kammavaca manuscript written in Pali in the 'Burmese' script.

The term Nikāya Buddhism is sometimes used in contemporary scholarship to refer to the Buddhism of the early Buddhist schools.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Hinayana

Sanskrit term literally meaning the "small/deficient vehicle".

Sanskrit term literally meaning the "small/deficient vehicle".

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Modern Buddhist scholarship has deprecated the pejorative term, and uses instead the term Nikaya Buddhism to refer to early Buddhist schools.

As per the traditional Theravada account, elder Moggaliputta-Tissa defended the Vibhajyavāda doctrine under Aśoka at the Third Council.

Vibhajyavāda

As per the traditional Theravada account, elder Moggaliputta-Tissa defended the Vibhajyavāda doctrine under Aśoka at the Third Council.
Map of the Buddhist missions during the reign of Ashoka.

Vibhajyavāda (Sanskrit; Pāli: Vibhajjavāda; ) is a term applied generally to groups of early Buddhists belonging to the Sthavira Nikaya.

Abhidhamma Pitaka

Abhidhamma Piṭaka

Collection of canonical texts in the Theravada Buddhist tradition.

Collection of canonical texts in the Theravada Buddhist tradition.

Abhidhamma Pitaka

The Abhidhamma Pitaka is one of several surviving examples of Abhidharma literature, analytical and philosophical texts that were composed by several of the early Buddhist schools of India.

Seated Buddha from the Sarvastivadin monastery of Tapa Shotor, 2nd century CE.

Sarvastivada

Seated Buddha from the Sarvastivadin monastery of Tapa Shotor, 2nd century CE.
Fragment of a Buddha stele in the name of a "Kshatrapa lady" named Naṃda (Mathura Katra fragment A-66 inscription 'Namdaye Kshatrapa'.jpg Naṃdaye Kshatrapa), from the Art of Mathura. The stele is dedicated to the Bodhisattva "for the welfare and happiness of all sentient beings for the acceptance of the Sarvastivadas". Northern Satraps period, 1st century CE.
Copper-plate inscription mentioning the Sarvastivadas, in the year 134 of the Azes era, i.e. 84 CE, Kalawan, Taxila.
A Kushan era votive stupa from Mohra Muradu, Taxila, where Sarvāstivāda groups are known to have lived by the end of the first century BCE.
The Dharmarajika Stupa and monastery ruins, a major Buddhist site in Taxila, one of the capitals of the Kushan empire.
Vasubandhu: Wood, 186 cm height, about 1208, Kofukuji Temple, Nara, Japan

The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit: 𑀲𑀭𑁆𑀯𑀸𑀲𑁆𑀢𑀺𑀯𑀸𑀤, Pāli: Sabbatthivāda, ) was one of the early Buddhist schools established around the reign of Ashoka (3rd century BCE).

The Great Chaitya Hall at the Karla Caves in Maharashtra

Mahāsāṃghika

The Great Chaitya Hall at the Karla Caves in Maharashtra
Karli Chaitya section in perspective
The Eight Auspicious Signs of Buddhism
The Buddha flanked by bodhisattvas. Cave 4, Ajaṇṭā Caves, Mahārāṣtra, India.
Elephant motif with buddhas above. Karla Caves, Mahārāṣtra, India.
Cave 1, Ajaṇṭā Caves, Mahārāṣtra, India
Sculpture of the Buddha from Mathura. 5th or 6th century CE
Cave complex associated with the Mahāsāṃghika sect. Karla Caves, Mahārāṣtra, India
Cave temple associated with the Mahāsāṃghikas. Ellora Caves

The Mahāsāṃghika (Brahmi: 𑀫𑀳𑀸𑀲𑀸𑀁𑀖𑀺𑀓, "of the Great Sangha", ) was one of the early Buddhist schools.