A report on Early Middle Ages

The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, a Carolingian Gospel book.
Dark Ages Cold Period
Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen, (The Huns in battle with the Alans by Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873). The Alans, an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea, functioned as Europe's first line of defence against the Asiatic Huns. They were dislocated and settled throughout the Roman Empire
A paten from the Treasure of Gourdon, found at Gourdon, Saône-et-Loire, France.
Theodora, Justinian's wife, and her retinue
Restored Walls of Constantinople
Christ crowning Constantine VII
ivory plaque, ca. 945
Europe around 650
The Sutton Hoo helmet, an Anglo-Saxon helmet from the early 7th century
The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
The Gokstad ship, a 9th-century Viking longship, excavated in 1882. Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway
Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav, Bulgarian capital from 893 to 972
St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim, 1010s. Ottonian architecture draws its inspiration from Carolingian and Byzantine architecture.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad preaching

Typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century.

- Early Middle Ages
The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, a Carolingian Gospel book.

50 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Middle Ages

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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

The Barberini ivory, a late Leonid/Justinian Byzantine ivory leaf from an imperial diptych, from an imperial workshop in Constantinople in the first half of the sixth century (Louvre Museum)

Late antiquity

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Time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, generally spanning the 4th–6th century in Europe and adjacent areas bordering the Mediterranean Basin.

Time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, generally spanning the 4th–6th century in Europe and adjacent areas bordering the Mediterranean Basin.

The Barberini ivory, a late Leonid/Justinian Byzantine ivory leaf from an imperial diptych, from an imperial workshop in Constantinople in the first half of the sixth century (Louvre Museum)
Late 4th-century Roman bust of a Germanic slave in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in Belgica Prima, seat of the praetorian prefecture of Gaul (Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier)
Modern statue of Constantine I at York, where he was proclaimed Augustus in 306
The Byzantine Empire after the Arabs conquered the provinces of Syria and Egypt – the same time the early Slavs settled in the Balkans
The Favourites of the Emperor Honorius, 1883: John William Waterhouse expresses the sense of moral decadence that coloured the 19th-century historical view of the 5th century.
The ruins of the Taq Kasra in Ctesiphon, capital of the Sasanian Empire, photographed in 1864
View west along the Harbour Street towards the Library of Celsus in Ephesus, present-day Turkey. The pillars on the left side of the street were part of the colonnaded walkway apparent in cities of Late Antique Asia Minor.
Roman cavalry from a mosaic of the Villa Romana del Casale, Sicily, 4th century CE
The Four Tetrarchs, in porphyry, later sacked from Constantinople, St. Marks, Venice
The Vienna Dioscurides, an early 6th-century illuminated manuscript of De Materia Medica by Dioscorides in Greek, a rare example of a late antique scientific text

In the West its end was earlier, with the start of the Early Middle Ages typically placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the edges of the Western Roman Empire.

The Carolingian Empire at its greatest extent in 814style=padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;

Carolingian Empire

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The Carolingian Empire at its greatest extent in 814style=padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;
The Dorestad Brooch, Carolingian-style cloisonné jewelry from c. 800. Found in the Netherlands, 1969.
Detailed map of the Carolingian Empire at its greatest extension (814) and subsequent partition of 843 (Treaty of Verdun).
Copy of the Ludwigslied, an epic poem celebrating the victory of Louis III of West Francia over the Vikings
Interior of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, Germany
A denarius minted by Prince Adelchis of Benevento in the name of Emperor Louis II and Empress Engelberga, showing the expansion of Carolingian authority in southern Italy which Louis achieved
Carolingian Empire superimposed over contemporary European national boundaries

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the Early Middle Ages.

The Parthenon is one of the most recognizable symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture.

Classical antiquity

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Period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world.

Period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world.

The Parthenon is one of the most recognizable symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture.
Map of Phoenician (in yellow) and Greek colonies (in red) around 8th to 6th century BC
Etruscan civilization in north of Italy, 800 BC.
Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), 14 AD (yellow), after 14 AD (green), and maximum extension under Trajan 117 (light green)
The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan, AD 117
The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476
The Byzantine Empire in 650 after the Arabs conquered the provinces of Syria and Egypt. At the same time early Slavs settled in the Balkans.
Plato and Aristotle walking and disputing. Detail from Raphael's The School of Athens (1509–1511)

It ends with the decline of classical culture during late antiquity (250–750), a period overlapping with the Early Middle Ages (600–1000).

A Viking Age depiction from the Tjängvide image stone, on Gotland.

Vikings

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Modern name given to seafaring people originally from Scandinavia <ref name="Definition_Scholarly">

Modern name given to seafaring people originally from Scandinavia <ref name="Definition_Scholarly">

A Viking Age depiction from the Tjängvide image stone, on Gotland.
Runestone raised in memory of Gunnarr by Tóki the Viking.
The Stora Hammars I image stone, showing the saga of Hildr, under what may be the rite of blood eagle, and on the bottom a Viking ship.
Europe in 814. Roslagen is located along the coast of the northern tip of the pink area marked "Swedes and Goths".
Sea-faring Norsemen depicted invading England. Illuminated illustration from the 12th century Miscellany on the Life of St. Edmund (Pierpont Morgan Library)
Viking expeditions (blue line): depicting the immense breadth of their voyages through most of Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, the Arctic, and North America. Lower Normandy, depicted as a ″Viking territory in 911″, was not part of the lands granted by the king of the Franks to Rollo in 911, but Upper Normandy.
Guests from Overseas (1901) by Nicholas Roerich, depicting a Varangian raid
Viking-era towns of Scandinavia
Curmsun Disc – obverse, Jomsborg, 980s
One of the few surviving manuscript leaves from the Heimskringla Sagas, written by Snorri Sturluson c. 1230. The leaf tells of King Ólafur.
Piraeus Lion drawing of curved lindworm. The runes on the lion tell of Swedish warriors, most likely Varangians, mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor.
A large reconstructed chieftains longhouse at Lofotr Viking Museum, Norway
Reconstructed town houses from Haithabu (now in Germany)
Typical jewellery worn by women of the Karls and Jarls: ornamented silver brooches, coloured glass-beads and amulets
Reconstructed Vikings costume on display at Archaeological Museum in Stavanger, Norway
Pot of soapstone, partly reconstructed, Viking Age (From Birka, Sweden)
Everyday life in the Viking Age
Rook, Lewis chessmen, at the National Museum of Scotland
The scales and weights of a Viking trader, used for measuring silver and sometimes gold (From the Sigtuna box found in Sweden)
Mjölnir, hammer of Thor, made of amber (Found in Sweden)
Exploration and expansion routes of Norsemen
A modern reenactment of a Viking battle
Viking long ships besieging Paris in 845, 19th century portrayal
Magnus Barelegs Viking Festival
Modern "Viking" helmets

The Vikings had a profound impact on the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, France, Estonia, and Kievan Rus'.

Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest

High Middle Ages

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The period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to the 1300s.

The period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to the 1300s.

Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest
Miniature representing the delivery of the fortress of Uclés to the Master of Order of Santiago in 1174
France in the 12th century. The Angevin Empire held the red, pink and orange territories.
King Saint Stephen I of Hungary.
Poland under the rule of Duke Mieszko I between c. 960 - 992
The Pontic steppes, c. 1015
After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209
A map of medieval universities and major monasteries with library in 1250
Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence (wearing spectacles), painted by Tommaso da Modena in 1352
Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map.
Fresco from the Boyana Church depicting Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen. The murals are among the finest achievements of the Bulgarian culture in the 13th century.
Interior of Nôtre Dame de Paris
John the Apostle and Marcion of Sinope in an Italian illuminated manuscript, painting on vellum, 11th century
Musicians playing the Spanish vihuela, one with a bow, the other plucked by hand, in the Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X of Castile, 13th century
Men playing the organistrum, from the Ourense Cathedral, Spain, 12th century
The cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, whose construction began in 1163, is one of the finer examples of the High Middle Ages architecture

The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and were followed by the Late Middle Ages, which ended around AD 1500 (by historiographical convention).

"Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Cornwall

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Historic county and ceremonial county in South West England.

Historic county and ceremonial county in South West England.

"Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
Cliffs at Land's End
Mên-an-Tol
Celtic tribes of Southern Britain
The ancient Hundreds of Cornwall
St German's Priory Church (Norman)
Dupath Well, one of Cornwall's many holy wells dating from c.1510
The Church of St Petroc at Bodmin (late 15th century)
Poughill Methodist Church
Satellite image of Cornwall
St Michael's Mount in Marazion
Cornwall is known for its beaches (Porthcurno Beach illustrated) and rugged coastline
Truro, Cornwall's administrative centre and only city.
The red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), once commonly seen throughout Cornwall, experienced a severe decline in its population in the 20th century.
A welcome sign to Penzance, in the English and Cornish languages
Souvenir flags outside a Cornish café
Tate Gallery at St Ives
Artwork in the Barbara Hepworth Museum in St Ives
Remains of Tintagel Castle, reputedly King Arthur's birthplace
'FOR THE FALLEN' plaque with the Rumps promontory beyond
Cornish wrestling
The world pilot gig rowing championships take place annually in the Isles of Scilly.
Cornwall's north coast is known as a centre for surfing.
A Cornish pasty
The percentage of respondents who gave "Cornish" as an answer to the National Identity question in the 2011 census
Cornwall Council's headquarters in Truro
From the 2010 general election, Cornwall has had six parliamentary constituencies.
Falmouth Docks is the major port of Cornwall, and one of the largest natural harbours in the world
The Eden Project near St Austell, Cornwall's largest tourist attraction in terms of visitor numbers
The cliffs at Bedruthan
Tin mines between Camborne and Redruth, c. 1890
Levant Mine in St Just Mining District
Graph showing Cornwall's population from 1800 to 2000
Falmouth University, Penryn
Landewednack Primary School

From the Early Middle Ages, language and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

Catholic Church

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Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world
The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD). Ignatius of Antioch is also attributed the earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Χριστιανισμός) c. 100 AD. He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.
This fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his twelve apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Most apostles are buried in Rome, including Saint Peter.
Jesus' commission to Saint Peter
19th-century drawing by Henry William Brewer of Old Saint Peter's Basilica, originally built in 318 by Emperor Constantine
Chartres Cathedral, completed 1220
The Renaissance period was a golden age for Catholic art. Pictured: the Sistine Chapel ceiling painted by Michelangelo
Ruins of the Jesuit Reduction at São Miguel das Missões in Brazil
While, since the 1960s, Pope Pius XII has been accused of not having done enough to shelter Jews from the Holocaust, his defenders claim he secretly encouraged individual Catholic resistance groups, such as that led by priest Heinrich Maier. Maier helped the allies fight against the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the Liberation of Rome in 1944 during World War II
Bishops listen during the Second Vatican Council
Pope John Paul II was credited as a major influence to the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. Here with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, in 1982.
Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He was elected in the 2013 papal conclave.
C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram
The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.
Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico
The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.
Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.
Wedding mass in the Philippines
Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary
East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.
Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.
Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling
Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

While the "Roman Church" has been used to describe the pope's Diocese of Rome since the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Early Middle Ages (6th–10th century), the "Roman Catholic Church" has been applied to the whole church in the English language since the Protestant Reformation in the late 16th century.

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Anglo-Saxons

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The migrations according to Bede, who wrote some 300 years after the event; there is archeological evidence that the settlers in England came from many of these mainland locations
The Tribal Hidage, from an edition of Henry Spelman's Glossarium Archaiologicum
Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Anglo-Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.
Æthelstan presenting a gospel book to (the long-dead) St Cuthbert (934); Corpus Christi College Cambridge MS 183, fol. 1v
A political map of Britain circa 650 (the names are in modern English)
Map of Britain in 802. By this date, historians today rarely distinguish between Angles, Saxons and Jutes.
The Oseberg ship prow, Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.
Anglo-Saxon-Viking coin weight. Material is lead and weighs approx 36 g. Embedded with a sceat dating to 720–750 AD and minted in Kent. It is edged in dotted triangle pattern. Origin is the Danelaw region and dates late 8th to 9th century.
A royal gift, the Alfred Jewel
Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum.
Cnut's 'Quatrefoil' type penny with the legend "CNUT REX ANGLORU[M]" (Cnut, King of the English), struck in London by the moneyer Edwin.
Depiction of the Battle of Hastings (1066) on the Bayeux Tapestry
Anglo-Saxon king with his witan. Biblical scene in the Illustrated Old English Hexateuch (11th century)
The right half of the front panel of the seventh century Franks Casket, depicting the pan-Germanic legend of Weyland Smith also Weyland The Smith, which was apparently also a part of Anglo-Saxon pagan mythology.
An 8th-century copy of the Rule of St. Benedict
Replica of the Sutton Hoo helmet
Panorama of the reconstructed 7th century village
Reconstruction of the Anglo-Saxon royal palace at Cheddar around 1000
Distinctive Anglo-Saxon pilaster strips on the tower of All Saints' Church, Earls Barton
Shoulder clasp (closed) from the Sutton Hoo ship-burial 1, England. British Museum.
Book of Cerne, evangelist portrait of Saint Mark
Her sƿutelað seo gecƿydrædnes ðe ('Here is manifested the Word to thee'). Old English inscription over the arch of the south porticus in the 10th-century St Mary's parish church, Breamore, Hampshire
The initial page of Rochester Cathedral Library, MS A.3.5, the Textus Roffensis, which contains the only surviving copy of Æthelberht's laws.
First page of the epic Beowulf
St Peter-in-the-Wall, Essex: A simple nave church of the early style {{circa|lk=no|650}}
Brixworth, Northants: monastery founded {{circa|lk=no|690}}, one of the largest churches to survive relatively intact
Barnack, Peterborough: Lower tower {{circa|lk=no|970}} – spire is later
Sompting Church, Sussex, with the only Anglo-Saxon Rhenish helm tower to survive, {{circa|lk=no|1050}}
Sutton Hoo purse-lid {{circa|lk=no|620}}
Codex Aureus of Canterbury {{circa|lk=no|750}}
Ruthwell Cross {{circa|lk=no|750}}
Trewhiddle style on silver ring {{circa|lk=no|775|850}}
St Oswald's Priory Cross {{circa|lk=no|890}}

The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England in the Early Middle Ages.

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595

History of Europe

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Traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe , classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

Traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe , classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c.1410
A Watt steam engine. The steam engine, fuelled primarily by coal, propelled the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Northwestern Europe.
Map depicting the earliest human migration in prehistoric Europe.
The Treasury of Atreus, or Tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae 1250 BC
The Parthenon, an ancient Athenian Temple on the Acropolis (hill-top city) fell to Rome in 176 BC
Europe in the year 301 BC
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III
The Roman republic and its neighbours in 58 BC.
Cicero addresses the Roman Senate to denounce Catiline's conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, by Cesare Maccari
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, under the emperor Trajan
Map of the partition of the Roman Empire in 395, at the death of Theodosius I: the Western Roman Empire is shown in red and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) is shown in purple
A simplified map of migrations from the 2nd to the 5th century. See also the [[:File:World 820.png|map of the world in 820 AD]].
Map showing Europe in 526 AD with the three dominating powers of the west
Constantine I and Justinian I offering their fealty to the Virgin Mary inside the Hagia Sophia
Europe in the Early Middle Ages
Europe in 1000, with most European states already formed
Europe in 1204.
Europe in 1097, as the First Crusade to the Holy Land commences
The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The spread of the "Black Death" from 1347 to 1351 through Europe
Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, the founder of accounting, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).
Cantino planisphere, 1502, earliest chart showing explorations by Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Cabral
The Ninety-Five Theses of German monk Martin Luther, which criticized the Catholic Church
Map of Europe in 1648
Europa regina, 1570 print by Sebastian Münster of Basel
Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
Animated map showing the evolution of Colonial empires from 1492 to the present
Contemporary woodcut depicting the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, which began the first part of the Thirty Years' War.
Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary in the St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg (Bratislava)
After the Peace of Westphalia, Europe's borders were still stable in 1708
Map of Europe in 1794 Samuel Dunn Map of the World
Expansion of Russia (1300–1945)
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
London's chimney sky in 1870, by Gustave Doré
The storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution of 1789
Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river
Cheering the Revolutions of 1848 in Berlin
Beginning in 1821, the Greek War of Independence began as a rebellion by Greek revolutionaries against the ruling Ottoman Empire.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the International Workingmen's Association at the Basel Congress in 1869
Paris Commune, 1871.
Giuseppe Garibaldi's redshirts during the Battle of Calatafimi, part of the Italian Unification.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany
The Berlin Conference (1884) headed by Otto von Bismarck that regulated European colonization in Africa during the New Imperialism period
The Fourth Estate (painting) by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo.
Europe in 1916
Trenches and sand bags were defences against machine guns and artillery on the Western Front, 1914–1918
Detail from William Orpen's painting The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, showing the signing of the peace treaty by a minor German official opposite to the representatives of the winning powers.
Interwar Europe in 1923
People gathered at sport event in 1938 (Sweden).
Europeans from various countries relaxing in wave pool in Hungary in 1939 just before the Second World War. Visible inscriptions in numerous languages.
FAI milicia during Spanish Social Revolution
Starving Jewish children in Warsaw Ghetto (1940–1943).
The fight against German Nazis during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
American and Soviet troops meet in April 1945, east of the Elbe River.
Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa disintegrated after World War II (mostly dominated by British and France.)
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961
Remains of the "Iron curtain" in Devínska Nová Ves, Bratislava (Slovakia).
Marshall Plan dollar amounts
Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate, November 1989; it would begin to be torn apart in the following days.
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

The slumber of the Dark Ages was shaken by a renewed crisis in the Church.