Early Modern English

EnglishEarly ModernElizabethan Englisharchaic EnglishElizabethan periodOlde EnglishShakespearean EnglishJacobean19th century British EnglishElizabethan
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.wikipedia
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English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.

Modern English

EnglishModernmodern spoken English
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century. Middle English, Modern English, Old English
With some differences in vocabulary, texts from the early 17th century, such as the works of William Shakespeare and the King James Bible, are considered to be in Modern English, or more specifically, are referred to as using Early Modern English or Elizabethan English.

King James Version

King James BibleKJVKing James
Modern readers of English can understand texts written in the late phase of the Early Modern English, such as the King James Bible and the works of William Shakespeare, and they have greatly influenced Modern English. The letter (thorn) was still in use during the Early Modern English period but was increasingly limited to handwritten texts. In Early Modern English printing, was represented by the Latin (see Ye olde), which appeared similar to thorn in blackletter typeface . Thorn had become nearly totally disused by the late Early Modern English period, the last vestiges of the letter being its ligatures, y e (thee), y t (that), y u (thou), which were still seen occasionally in the 1611 King James Bible and in Shakespeare's Folios.
The title of the first edition of the translation, in Early Modern English, was "THE HOLY BIBLE, Conteyning the Old Teſtament, AND THE NEW: Newly Tranſlated out of the Originall tongues: & with the former Tranſlations diligently compared and reuiſed, by his Maiesties ſpeciall Comandement". The title page carries the words "Appointed to be read in Churches", and F. F. Bruce suggests it was "probably authorised by order in council" but no record of the authorisation survives "because the Privy Council registers from 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19".

Middle Scots

Scots
Before and after the accession of James I to the English throne in 1603, the emerging English standard began to influence the spoken and written Middle Scots of Scotland.
Subsequently, the orthography of Middle Scots differed from that of the emerging Early Modern English standard.

Le Morte d'Arthur

Morte d'ArthurWinchester ManuscriptKing Arthur Tales
Texts from the earlier phase of Middle English, such as the late-15th century Le Morte d'Arthur (1485) and the mid-16th century Gorboduc (1561), may present more difficulties but are still obviously closer to Modern English grammar, lexicon and phonology than are 14th-century Middle English texts, such as the works of Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Middle English of Le Morte d'Arthur is much closer to Early Modern English than the Middle English of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.

Middle English

EnglishMiddleME
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century. Middle English, Modern English, Old English
Middle English was succeeded in England by the era of Early Modern English, which lasted until about 1650.

Ye olde

Ye Olde ShoppeOlde Englishe
The letter (thorn) was still in use during the Early Modern English period but was increasingly limited to handwritten texts. In Early Modern English printing, was represented by the Latin (see Ye olde), which appeared similar to thorn in blackletter typeface . Thorn had become nearly totally disused by the late Early Modern English period, the last vestiges of the letter being its ligatures, y e (thee), y t (that), y u (thou), which were still seen occasionally in the 1611 King James Bible and in Shakespeare's Folios.
"Ye olde" is a pseudo-Early Modern English stock prefix, used anachronistically, suggestive of a Merry England, Deep England or "old, as in Medieval old" feel.

Phonological history of English high front vowels

pin–pen mergerweak-vowel mergerweak vowel merger
(typically spelled or ) as in see, bee and meet, was more or less the same as the phoneme represents today, but it had not yet merged with the phoneme represented by the spellings or (and perhaps, particularly with fiend, field and friend), as in east, meal and feat, which were pronounced with or . However, words like breath, dead and head may have already split off towards ).
The spellings that became established in Early Modern English are mostly still used today, although the qualities of the sounds have changed significantly.

H-dropping

h''-droppingdroppedh-adding
H-dropping at the start of words was common, as it still is in informal English throughout most of England.
The instances of /h/ in coda position were lost during the Middle English and Early Modern English periods, although they are still reflected in the spelling of words such as taught (now pronounced like taut) and weight (now pronounced in most accents like wait). Most of the initial clusters involving /h/ also disappeared (see H-cluster reductions).

Received Pronunciation

RPBBC EnglishOxford accent
It is clear that the r sound (the phoneme ) was probably always pronounced with following vowel sounds (more in the style of today's Northern English, Irish or Scottish accents and less like today's typical London or standard British accents).
RP is often believed to be based on the accents of southern England, but it actually has most in common with the Early Modern English dialects of the East Midlands.

History of English

standardization of English spellinghistory of the English languageEnglish
History of the English language
Early Modern English – the language used by Shakespeare – is dated from around 1500.

Anglic languages

AnglicEnglishAnglic language
The Anglic languages (also called the English languages or Insular Germanic languages ) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it. These include Middle English, Early Modern English, and Modern English; Early Scots, Middle Scots, and Modern Scots; and the now extinct Yola and Fingallian in Ireland.

Shakespeare's influence

Shakespearean dialoguereceptionadding two to three thousand words to the English language
The towering importance of William Shakespeare over the other Elizabethan authors was the result of his reception during the 17th and the 18th centuries, which directly contributes to the development of Standard English.
Early Modern English as a literary medium was unfixed in structure and vocabulary in comparison to Greek and Latin, and was in a constant state of flux.

Thou

theethethou'' and ''thee
Early Modern English had two second-person personal pronouns: thou, the informal singular pronoun, and ye, the plural (both formal and informal) pronoun and the formal singular pronoun.
This comes from a merging of Early Modern English second person singular ending -st and third person singular ending -s into -s (the latter a southern variation of -þ (-th)).

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Middle English, Modern English, Old English
The Old English period is followed by Middle English (12th to 15th century), Early Modern English (c. 1480 to 1650) and finally Modern English (after 1650).

Phonological history of English high back vowels

foot–strut splitfoot''–''strut'' split FOOT – STRUT split
(as in drum, enough and love) and (as in could, full, put,) had not yet split and so were both pronounced about as.
The origin of the split is the unrounding of in Early Modern English, resulting in the phoneme.

Phonological history of English diphthongs

coil–curl mergerline–loin mergerpane-pain merger
, as in stone, bode and yolk, was or . The phoneme was probably just beginning the process of merging with the phoneme, as in grow, know and mow, without yet achieving today's complete merger. The old pronunciation remains in some dialects, such as in Yorkshire and Scotland.
The earliest stage of Early Modern English had a contrast between the long mid monophthongs (as in pane and toe respectively) and the diphthongs (as in pain and tow respectively).

American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
1607 – The first successful permanent English colony in the New World, Jamestown, is established in Virginia. Early vocabulary specific to American English comes from indigenous languages (such as moose, racoon).
A number of words and meanings that originated in Middle English or Early Modern English and that have been in everyday use in the United States have since disappeared in most varieties of British English; some of these have cognates in Lowland Scots.

Unaccusative verb

unaccusativeunergative
The rules for the auxiliaries for different verbs were similar to those that are still observed in German and French (see unaccusative verb).
The most well-known test is auxiliary selection in languages that use two different temporal auxiliaries (have and be) for analytic past/perfect verb forms (e.g. German, Dutch, French, Italian; even Early Modern English).

Shakespeare's sonnets

154 sonnetssonnetsFair Youth
1609 – Shakespeare's sonnets published

First Folio

FolioFolio of 1623first folio collected edition of 1623
1623 – Shakespeare's First Folio published

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared.

Hiberno-English

IrishIrelandIrish accent
It is clear that the r sound (the phoneme ) was probably always pronounced with following vowel sounds (more in the style of today's Northern English, Irish or Scottish accents and less like today's typical London or standard British accents).
This word appears in Shakespeare (though he wrote in Early Modern English rather than Middle English), but is seldom heard these days in British English, although pockets of usage persist in some areas (notably South Wales, Devon, and Cornwall).

William Tyndale

TyndaleTindalTyndale's NT
From 1525 – Publication of William Tyndale's Bible translation, which was initially banned.
Tyndale was writing at the beginning of the Early Modern English period.