A report on Early centers of Christianity

The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.
A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a German documentary. The church is claimed to be at the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus.
The Church of St Peter near Antakya, Turkey, said to be the spot where Saint Peter first preached the Gospel in Roman Antioch.
Map of Western Anatolia showing the "Seven Churches of Asia" and the Greek island of Patmos.
Remains of the ancient Roman aqueduct in Caesarea Maritima.
St Paul's Pillar in Paphos
The Chapel of Saint Paul, said to be Bab Kisan where St. Paul escaped from Old Damascus
St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber
A scene showing Christ Pantocrator from a Roman mosaic in the church of Santa Pudenziana in Rome, c. 410 AD
Amphithéâtre des Trois-Gaules, in Lyon. The pole in the arena is a memorial to the people killed during the persecution.
St Paul's Islands near St. Paul's Bay, traditionally identified as the place where St Paul was shipwrecked
According to tradition, the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares was proselytized by St Thomas, who continued on to southern India, and possibly as far as Malaysia or China.

Early Christianity (up to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Levant, across the Roman Empire, and beyond.

- Early centers of Christianity
The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.

63 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt

Paul the Apostle

16 links

Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world.

Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world.

The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt
The Conversion of Saul, fresco by Michelangelo, 1542–1545
Geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem to Rome
Conversion on the Way to Damascus (1601), by Caravaggio
The Conversion of Saint Paul on the Way to Damascus (c. 1889), by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior
Caravaggio (1571–1610), The Conversion of Saint Paul, 1600
St Paul by Peter Paul Rubens
The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt
The house believed to be of Ananias of Damascus in Damascus
Bab Kisan, believed to be where Paul escaped from persecution in Damascus
Map of the missionary journeys of St. Paul
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515. This sermon addressed early issues in Christology.
The Preaching of Saint Paul at Ephesus by Eustache Le Sueur (1649)
Saint Paul arrested, early 1900s Bible illustration
St. Paul's Grotto in Rabat, Malta
Paul Arrives in Rome, from Die Bibel in Bildern
The Beheading of Saint Paul by Enrique Simonet, 1887
Greek Orthodox mural painting of Saint Paul
Statue of St. Paul in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran by Pierre-Étienne Monnot
Paul Writing His Epistles, painting attributed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century
Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle Paul, 18th century (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi Monastery, Karelia, Russia)
Saint Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th – early 7th century (Musée de Cluny)
Paul the Apostle, (16th-century) attributed to Lucas van Leyden
Statue of St. Paul (1606) by Gregorio Fernández
A statue of Paul holding a scroll (symbolising the Scriptures) and the sword (symbolising his martyrdom)
Facial composite of Saint Paul, created by experts of the Landeskriminalamt of North Rhine-Westphalia using historical sources

Generally regarded as one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, he founded several Christian communities in Asia Minor and Europe from the mid-40s to the mid-50s AD.

Acts 26:7–8, 20 on Papyrus 29 (c. AD 250).

Acts of the Apostles

13 links

Fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian Church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

Fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian Church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

Acts 26:7–8, 20 on Papyrus 29 (c. AD 250).
Ministry of the Apostles: Russian icon by Fyodor Zubov, 1660
Acts 1:1–2a from the 14th century Minuscule 223
Paul's conversion, from Livre d'Heures d'Étienne Chevalier (c. 1450–1460), Jean Fouquet, in the Château de Chantilly
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, ascribed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century

The early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost (the coming of the Holy Spirit) and the growth of the church in Jerusalem.

Valentin de Boulogne's depiction of Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1618-1620 (Blaffer Foundation Collection, Houston, Texas)

Jewish Christian

12 links

Jewish Christians (יהודים נוצרים) were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea during the late Second Temple period (first century AD).

Jewish Christians (יהודים נוצרים) were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea during the late Second Temple period (first century AD).

Valentin de Boulogne's depiction of Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1618-1620 (Blaffer Foundation Collection, Houston, Texas)

According to, the term "Christian" (Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ", by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch.

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, painting by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856), Tate Britain, London

Christianity in the 1st century

11 links

Thus also known as the Apostolic Age.

Thus also known as the Apostolic Age.

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, painting by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856), Tate Britain, London
The Crucifixion, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. 1745–1750, Saint Louis Art Museum
The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.
James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the apostolic decree of
Saint Paul, by El Greco
Mediterranean Basin geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem in the lower right to Rome in the upper left.
An artistic representation of St. Clement I, an Apostolic Father.
A coin issued by Nerva reads
fisci Judaici calumnia sublata,
"abolition of malicious prosecution in connection with the Jewish tax"

The apostles went on to spread the message of the Gospel around the classical world and founded apostolic sees around the early centers of Christianity.

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

Christianity

7 links

Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Various depictions of Jesus
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
229x229px
A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
The Cenacle on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles

Jesus' apostles and their followers spread around the Levant, Europe, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the South Caucasus, Egypt, and Ethiopia, despite initial persecution.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.

History of Christianity

7 links

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.
The eastern Mediterranean region in the time of Paul the Apostle
Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century
St. Lawrence (martyred 258) before Emperor Valerianus by Fra Angelico
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles
Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the early Roman catacombs, 4th century.
300px
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.
The ceiling mosaic of the Arian Baptistery, built in Ravenna by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great.
An Eastern Roman mosaic showing a basilica with towers, mounted with Christian crosses, 5th century, Louvre
The Church of the East during the Middle Ages
Coptic icon of St. Anthony the Great, father of Christian monasticism and early anchorite. The Coptic inscription reads ‘Ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓ’ ("the Great Father Anthony").
A mosaic of Justinian I in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Roderick is venerated as one of the Martyrs of Córdoba
Raid on the Monastery of Zobe and the death of hegumenos Michael and his 36 brothers, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II.
"Hospitality of Abraham", icon by Andrei Rublev; the three angels represent the Godhead according to Trinitarian Christians.
Western Europe, the Holy Roman Empire, Kievan Rus', and the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages (year 1000)
The spread of Cistercians from their original sites in Western-Central Europe during the Middle Ages
Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor at the gate of Canossa Castle in 1077, during the Investiture controversy.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusader states with their strongholds in the Holy Land at their height, between the First and the Second Crusade (1135)
St. Cyril and St. Methodius monument on Mt. Radhošť
Christianization of Kievan Rus', the first unified federation of Slavic tribes
Christianization of Moravia under the rule of Rastislav
Jan Hus defending his theses at the Council of Constance (1415), painting by the Czech artist Václav Brožík
Michelangelo's Pietà (1498–99) in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
American Discovery Viewed by Native Americans (Thomas Hart Benton, 1922). European discovery and colonization had disastrous effects on the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and their societies.
The Council in Santa Maria Maggiore church; Museo Diocesiano Tridentino, Trento
Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th-century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Philipp Spener, the founder of Pietism
Churches of the Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug
Demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow on the orders of Joseph Stalin, 5 December 1931, consistent with the doctrine of state atheism in the USSR
Pope Pius XI
Laying on of hands during a service in a neo-charismatic church in Ghana

The early Christian groups were strictly Jewish, such as the Ebionites, and the early Christian community in Jerusalem, led by James the Just, brother of Jesus.

The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, is a depiction of the last supper of Jesus and his Twelve Apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

Apostles in the New Testament

11 links

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament.

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament.

The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, is a depiction of the last supper of Jesus and his Twelve Apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, fresco with the Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome
The Synaxis of the Twelve Apostles. Russian, 14th century, Moscow Museum.
Vocation of the Apostles, a fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Domenico Ghirlandaio, 1481–82
James Tissot, The Exhortation to the Apostles
Adriaen van de Venne's Fishing for Souls, oil on panel, 1614
Monument of Jesus and the Twelve Apostles in Domus Galilaeae, Israel
Relics of the Apostles in 2017, while they were in Utah during the Relic Tour
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome)

Bishops traced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have dispersed from Jerusalem and established churches across great territories.

Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel, by Rembrandt, 1661

New Testament

16 links

Second division of the Christian biblical canon.

Second division of the Christian biblical canon.

Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel, by Rembrandt, 1661
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles by Valentin de Boulogne (c. 1618–1620). Most scholars think Paul actually dictated his letters to a secretary.
Papyrus Bodmer VIII, at the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, showing 1 and 2 Peter.
The Codex Regius (L or 019), an 8th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament with strong affinities to Codex Vaticanus.
The Rossano Gospels, 6th century, a representative of Byzantine text
The Rabbula Gospels, Eusebian Canons.
BL Add. MS 59874 with Ethiopic Gospel of Matthew.
A Byzantine lectionary, Codex Harleianus (l150), 995 AD, text of John 1:18.
Gaudenzio Ferrari's Stories of the Life and Passion of Christ, fresco, 1513, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Varallo Sesia, Italy. Depicting the life of Jesus

As Christianity spread, these books were later translated into other languages, most notably, Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian Coptic.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early third-century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. Upper tier: dedication to the Dis Manibus and Christian motto in Greek letters ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ (, "fish of the living", a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol); middle tier: depiction of fish and an anchor; lower tier: Latin inscription of the identity of the deceased LICINIAE FAMIATI BE / NE MERENTI VIXIT.

Christianity in the ante-Nicene period

6 links

The time in Christian history up to the First Council of Nicaea.

The time in Christian history up to the First Council of Nicaea.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early third-century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. Upper tier: dedication to the Dis Manibus and Christian motto in Greek letters ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ (, "fish of the living", a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol); middle tier: depiction of fish and an anchor; lower tier: Latin inscription of the identity of the deceased LICINIAE FAMIATI BE / NE MERENTI VIXIT.
Fresco showing a woman wearing a headcovering praying in the gesture of orans (3rd century)
Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, third century.
Ignatius of Antioch, one of the Apostolic Fathers and the third Bishop of Antioch, was considered a student of John the Apostle. En route to his martyrdom in Rome (c. 108), Ignatius wrote a series of preserved letters which are examples of late-1st to early-second-century Christian theology.
Irenaeus wrote On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis.
A scene showing Christ Pantocrator from a Roman mosaic in the church of Santa Pudenziana in Rome, c. 410 AD
A folio from P46, an early 3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles.
250px

While the Jewish Christian church was centered in Jerusalem in the first century, Gentile Christianity became decentralized in the second century.

James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the Apostolic Decree of, c. 78 AD: "we should write to them [Gentiles] to abstain only from things polluted by idols and from fornication and from whatever has been strangled and from blood..." (NRSV)

Council of Jerusalem

5 links

James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the Apostolic Decree of, c. 78 AD: "we should write to them [Gentiles] to abstain only from things polluted by idols and from fornication and from whatever has been strangled and from blood..." (NRSV)

The Council of Jerusalem or Apostolic Council was held in Jerusalem around AD 50.