Early human migrations

early human migrationpeopling of the worldearliest migrationearly migrationhuman habitationmigrated out of Africamigrationsouthern exitearliest human migrationsearliest migrations
Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents and are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus.wikipedia
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Recent African origin of modern humans

out of AfricaOut of Africa theoryrecent African origin
The recent African origin paradigm suggests that the anatomically modern humans outside of Africa descend from a population of Homo sapiens migrating from East Africa roughly 70–50,000 years ago and spreading along the southern coast of Asia and to Oceania by about 50,000 years ago.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

Homo

early humansearly humanhumans
Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents and are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus.
H. sapiens dispersed from Africa in several waves, from possibly as early as 250,000 years ago, and certainly by 130,000 years ago, the so-called Southern Dispersal beginning about 70-50,000 years ago leading to the lasting colonisation of Eurasia and Oceania by 50,000 years ago.

Ubeidiya

El-`Ubeidiya
Key sites for this early migration out of Africa are Riwat in Pakistan (~2 Ma? ), Ubeidiya in the Levant (1.5 Ma) and Dmanisi in the Caucasus (1.81 ± 0.03 Ma, p=0.05 ).
1.5 million years ago, preserving traces of one of the earliest migration of Homo erectus out of Africa, with only the site of Dmanisi in Georgia being older.

Haplogroup N (mtDNA)

Nhaplogroup NN1
An Asia center of origin and dispersal for the mtDNA haplogroup L3 has also been hypothesized based on the fossil record, the similar coalescence dates of L3 and its Eurasian-distributed M and N derivative clades (~71 kya), the distant location in Southeast Asia of the oldest subclades of M and N, and the comparable age of the paternal haplogroup DE.
All mtDNA haplogroups found outside of Africa are descendants of either haplogroup N or its sibling haplogroup M. M and N are the signature maternal haplogroups that define the theory of the recent African origin of modern humans and subsequent early human migrations around the world.

Human migration

migrationmigratedmigrate
Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents and are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus.

Southern Dispersal

coastal migrationGreat Coastal Migrationrecent out-of-Africa
The recent African origin paradigm suggests that the anatomically modern humans outside of Africa descend from a population of Homo sapiens migrating from East Africa roughly 70–50,000 years ago and spreading along the southern coast of Asia and to Oceania by about 50,000 years ago. Their descendants spread along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia to the Indian subcontinent before 55,000 years ago.
In the context of the recent African origin of modern humans, the Southern Dispersal scenario (also the coastal migration hypothesis) refers to the early migration along the southern coast of Asia, from the Arabian peninsula via Persia and India to Southeast Asia and Oceania Alternative names include the "southern coastal route" or "rapid coastal settlement".

Upper Paleolithic

Upper Palaeolithic20,000 BCUpper
This dispersal of early humans, at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic, gave rise to the major population groups of the Old World and the Americas.
This period coincides with the expansion of modern humans from Africa throughout Asia and Eurasia, which contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals.

Settlement of the Americas

discovery of the Americaspeopling of the AmericasModels of migration to the New World
After the Last Glacial Maximum, North Eurasian populations migrated to the Americas about 20,000 years ago.

Riwat

Riwatian people
Key sites for this early migration out of Africa are Riwat in Pakistan (~2 Ma? ), Ubeidiya in the Levant (1.5 Ma) and Dmanisi in the Caucasus (1.81 ± 0.03 Ma, p=0.05 ).

Apidima Cave

Apidema-1identified in Greece
neanderthalensis in Apidima Cave in southern Greece, more than 150,000 years older than previous H.

Boat

boatsprimitive boatsSki boat
Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America as far as Chile.
Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, and in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times.

Austronesian peoples

AustronesianAustronesiansAustronesian people
Finally, Polynesia was peopled within the past 2,000 years in the last wave of the Austronesian expansion.
They originate from a prehistoric seaborne migration from 3000 to 1500 BCE known as the Austronesian expansion.

South Asian Stone Age

Stone AgeSouth Asia10,000 to 5,500 BCE
Their descendants spread along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia to the Indian subcontinent before 55,000 years ago.
Analysis of mitochondrial DNA dates the immigration of Homo sapiens to South Asia to 75,000 to 50,000 years ago.

Neanderthal

NeanderthalsHomo neanderthalensisNeanderthal man
This initial migration was followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, which lived around 500,000 years ago and was the likely ancestor of both Denisovans and Neanderthals.

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
Within Africa, Homo sapiens dispersed around the time of its speciation, roughly 300,000 years ago.
Recent divergence of Eurasian lineages was sped up significantly during the Last Glacial Maximum, the Mesolithic and the Neolithic, due to increased selection pressures and due to founder effects associated with migration.

Archaic humans

archaic humanarchaic ''Homo sapiensarchaic
This initial migration was followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, which lived around 500,000 years ago and was the likely ancestor of both Denisovans and Neanderthals.

List of first human settlements

List of countries and islands by first human settlementEarliest human settlementLida Ajer cave
This is a list of dates associated with the prehistoric peopling of the world (first known presence of Homo sapiens).

Toba catastrophe theory

Toba eruptionToba supereruptionToba catastrophe
An explanation for their extinction (or small genetic imprint) may be the Toba eruption (74,000 years ago), though some argue it scarcely impacted human population.

Early expansions of hominins out of Africa

out of AfricaOut of Africa Iearly dispersal
Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents and are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus.

Homo erectus

H. erectusDmanisi ManPithecanthropus erectus'' (later redesignated ''Homo erectus'')
Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents and are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus.

Homo heidelbergensis

H. heidelbergensisRhodesian ManH. rhodesiensis
This initial migration was followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, which lived around 500,000 years ago and was the likely ancestor of both Denisovans and Neanderthals.

Last Glacial Maximum

last ice ageice ageglacial maximum
After the Last Glacial Maximum, North Eurasian populations migrated to the Americas about 20,000 years ago.

Ancient North Eurasian

Ancient North EurasiansANEBronze Age
After the Last Glacial Maximum, North Eurasian populations migrated to the Americas about 20,000 years ago.

Holocene

PresentRecentHolocene epoch
Northern Eurasia was peopled after 12,000 years ago, in the beginning Holocene.