Earth's energy budget

radiation budgetEarth Radiation BudgetEarth's radiation balanceradiation balanceenergy budgetEarth's radiation budgetenergy balanceradiative balanceEarth's energy balanceearth's incoming solar radiation and outgoing long wave radiation
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.wikipedia
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Climate system

Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.
The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget.

Earth's internal heat budget

Earth's heat contentEarth's internal heatDissipation of heat from the mantle
The geothermal heat flux from the Earth's interior is estimated to be 47 terawatts and split approximately equally between radiogenic heat and heat leftover from the Earth's formation.
Despite its geological significance, this heat energy coming from Earth's interior is actually only 0.03% of Earth's total energy budget at the surface, which is dominated by 173,000 TW of incoming solar radiation.

Ocean

marineoceansmaritime
Changes in surface temperature due to Earth's energy budget do not occur instantaneously, due to the inertia of the oceans and the cryosphere.
Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth's energy budget.

Earth Radiation Budget Satellite

Earth Radiation Budget ExperimentERBSEarth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)
The NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) project involves three such satellites: the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), launched October 1984; NOAA-9, launched December 1984; and NOAA-10, launched September 1986.
The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) was a NASA scientific research satellite within NASA's ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) Research Program - a three-satellite mission, designed to investigate the Earth radiation budget It also carried an instrument that studied stratospheric aerosol and gases.

Solar irradiance

solar radiationinsolationsolar insolation
This comes to 0.087 watt/square metre, which represents only 0.027% of Earth's total energy budget at the surface, which is dominated by 173,000 terawatts of incoming solar radiation.
Instrument inaccuracies add a significant uncertainty in determining Earth's energy balance.

Climate sensitivity

Equilibrium climate sensitivity50% increase in atmospheric CO2are net positive
Climate sensitivity is the steady state change in the equilibrium temperature as a result of changes in the energy budget.
The equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) is the temperature increase that would result from sustained doubling of the concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, after the Earth's energy budget and the climate system reach radiative equilibrium.

World energy consumption

energyWorld energy resources and consumptionenergy demand
Human production of energy is even lower, at an estimated 18 TW.

Water vapor

water vapourvaporevaporation
However, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and other trace gases are opaque to many wavelengths of thermal radiation.
The absorption and emission of both compounds contribute to Earth's emission to space, and thus the planetary greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse effect

greenhouse warminggreenhousegreenhouse gases
Earlier, Joseph Fourier had claimed that deep space radiation was significant in a paper often cited as the first on the greenhouse effect.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
In 2012, NASA scientists reported that to stop global warming atmospheric CO 2 content would have to be reduced to 350 ppm or less, assuming all other climate forcings were fixed.
In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, aerosols have indirect effects on the Earth's radiation budget.

Atmosphere of Earth

airEarth's atmosphereatmosphere
This system is made up of Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

CERESClouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

Energy

energy transferenergiestotal energy
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.

Sun

solarSolThe Sun
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.

Outer space

spaceinterstellar spaceintergalactic medium
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.

Hydrosphere

waterhydrosphericatmospheric cycling
This system is made up of Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.

Cryosphere

cryosphericicecryology
Changes in surface temperature due to Earth's energy budget do not occur instantaneously, due to the inertia of the oceans and the cryosphere. This system is made up of Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.

Lithosphere

continental lithosphereoceaniclithospheric
This system is made up of Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.

Biosphere

ecospherebiosphericenvironment
This system is made up of Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.

Radiation

radiologicalradioactiveradiative
Received radiation is unevenly distributed over the planet, because the Sun heats equatorial regions more than polar regions.

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
"The atmosphere and ocean work non-stop to even out solar heating imbalances through evaporation of surface water, convection, rainfall, winds, and ocean circulation."

Radiative equilibrium

equilibriumradiative
Earth is very close to being in radiative equilibrium, the situation where the incoming solar energy is balanced by an equal flow of heat to space; under that condition, global temperatures will be relatively stable.

Albedo

albedosreflectivitygeometrical albedo
However, Earth's energy balance and heat fluxes depend on many factors, such as atmospheric composition (mainly aerosols and greenhouse gases), the albedo (reflectivity) of surface properties, cloud cover and vegetation and land use patterns.

Inertia

inertialinertia forceinertial forces
Changes in surface temperature due to Earth's energy budget do not occur instantaneously, due to the inertia of the oceans and the cryosphere.