Earth's orbit

its orbitorbitEarth orbitsEarth-Sun distancemotion of the Earthorbit of the Earth Orbit of Earth distanceEarth revolvesEarth's elliptic motion
All astronomical objects in the Solar System, including the planets like Earth, orbit around the Solar System's centre of mass.wikipedia
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Earth

terrestrialworldGlobal
All astronomical objects in the Solar System, including the planets like Earth, orbit around the Solar System's centre of mass.
Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year.

Astronomical unit

AUastronomical unitsAUs
The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 149.60 million km (92.96 million mi), and one complete orbit takes days (1 sidereal year), during which time Earth has traveled 940 million km (584 million mi).
Earth's orbit around the Sun is an ellipse.

Heliocentrism

heliocentricheliocentric modelheliocentric theory
Heliocentrism is the scientific model that first placed the Sun at the center of the Solar System and put the planets, including Earth, in its orbit.
While the sphericity of the Earth was widely recognized in Greco-Roman astronomy from at least the 3rd century BC, the Earth's daily rotation and yearly orbit around the Sun was never universally accepted until the Copernican Revolution.

Solar time

mean solar timesolar dayapparent solar time
As seen from Earth, the planet's orbital prograde motion makes the Sun appear to move with respect to other stars at a rate of about 1° (or a Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours) eastward per solar day.
First, Earth's orbit is an ellipse, not a circle, so the Earth moves faster when it is nearest the Sun (perihelion) and slower when it is farthest from the Sun (aphelion) (see Kepler's laws of planetary motion).

Ecliptic

ecliptical orbitsecliptic planeplane of the ecliptic
Because of Earth's axial tilt (often known as the obliquity of the ecliptic), the inclination of the Sun's trajectory in the sky (as seen by an observer on Earth's surface) varies over the course of the year.
This plane of reference is coplanar with Earth's orbit around the Sun (and hence the Sun's apparent path around Earth).

Season

seasonsseasonalfour seasons
This variation in the weather (because of the direction of the Earth's axial tilt) results in the seasons.
On Earth, seasons result from Earth's orbit around the Sun and Earth's axial tilt relative to the ecliptic plane.

Equinox

autumnal equinoxautumn equinoxequinoxes
By astronomical convention, the four seasons are determined by the solstices (the two points in the Earth's orbit of the maximum tilt of the Earth's axis, toward the Sun or away from the Sun) and the equinoxes (the two points in the Earth's orbit where the Earth's tilted axis and an imaginary line drawn from the Earth to the Sun are exactly perpendicular to one another).
However, because the Moon (and to a lesser extent the other planets) cause the motion of the Earth to vary from a perfect ellipse, the equinox is now officially defined by the Sun's more regular ecliptic longitude rather than by its declination.

Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch theoryMilankovitchMilankovitch cycle
In modern times, Earth's perihelion occurs around January 3, and the aphelion around July 4 (for other eras, see precession and Milankovitch cycles).
In the 1920s, he hypothesized that variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit resulted in cyclical variation in the solar radiation reaching the Earth, and that this orbital forcing strongly influenced climatic patterns on Earth.

Earth's rotation

rotationrotation of the EarthEarth rotates
Earth's rotation
Earth's orbit

Geocentric orbit

GeocentricEarth orbitorbital
Geocentric orbit – the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or an artificial satellite
Earth's orbit

Astronomical object

celestial bodiescelestial bodycelestial object
All astronomical objects in the Solar System, including the planets like Earth, orbit around the Solar System's centre of mass.

Solar System

outer Solar Systeminner Solar SystemSol system
All astronomical objects in the Solar System, including the planets like Earth, orbit around the Solar System's centre of mass. Heliocentrism is the scientific model that first placed the Sun at the center of the Solar System and put the planets, including Earth, in its orbit.

Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanetary-mass object
All astronomical objects in the Solar System, including the planets like Earth, orbit around the Solar System's centre of mass.

Center of mass

center of gravitycentre of gravitycentre of mass
All astronomical objects in the Solar System, including the planets like Earth, orbit around the Solar System's centre of mass.

Sun

solarSolThe Sun
Since the Sun constitutes 99.76% of this mass, the centre of mass is extremely close to the star.

Orbit

orbitsorbital motionplanetary motion
Earth's orbit is the trajectory along which Earth travels around the Sun.

List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System

Gravitationally rounded objectaverage distance32 observationally confirmed such objects
The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 149.60 million km (92.96 million mi), and one complete orbit takes days (1 sidereal year), during which time Earth has traveled 940 million km (584 million mi).

Sidereal year

siderealEarth's orbital frequencysidereal orbital periods
The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 149.60 million km (92.96 million mi), and one complete orbit takes days (1 sidereal year), during which time Earth has traveled 940 million km (584 million mi).

Orbital eccentricity

eccentricityeccentriceccentricities
Earth's orbit has an eccentricity of 0.0167.

Retrograde and prograde motion

retrogradeprograderetrograde orbit
As seen from Earth, the planet's orbital prograde motion makes the Sun appear to move with respect to other stars at a rate of about 1° (or a Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours) eastward per solar day.

Diurnal motion

diurnalapparent motionappears to move
As seen from Earth, the planet's orbital prograde motion makes the Sun appear to move with respect to other stars at a rate of about 1° (or a Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours) eastward per solar day.

Fixed stars

fixed starfixedstars
As seen from Earth, the planet's orbital prograde motion makes the Sun appear to move with respect to other stars at a rate of about 1° (or a Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours) eastward per solar day.

Orbital speed

orbital velocityorbital velocitiesspeed
Earth's orbital speed averages about 30 km/s (108,000 km/h; 67,000 mph), which is fast enough to cover the planet's diameter in 7 minutes and the distance to the Moon in 4 hours.

Lunar distance (astronomy)

lunar distancesLDlunar distance
Earth's orbital speed averages about 30 km/s (108,000 km/h; 67,000 mph), which is fast enough to cover the planet's diameter in 7 minutes and the distance to the Moon in 4 hours.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
Earth's orbital speed averages about 30 km/s (108,000 km/h; 67,000 mph), which is fast enough to cover the planet's diameter in 7 minutes and the distance to the Moon in 4 hours.