Earth science

geoscienceearth sciencesgeosciencesEarthearth scientistearth scientistsgeoscientistgeoscientificgeoscientistsEarth system science
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.wikipedia
1,141 Related Articles

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science.

Planetary science

planetary scientistplanetary sciencesplanetology
Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.
It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science, but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.

Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
The earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the earth's crust.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse") ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

Geography

geographicalgeographicgeographer
Typically, earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the earth works and evolves.
The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.

Biosphere

ecospherebiosphericenvironment
The earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Earth science encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields.
While the concept has a geological origin, it is an indication of the effect of both Charles Darwin and Matthew F. Maury on the Earth sciences.

Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologic
Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and biogeography. Hydrology, oceanography and limnology are a study revolved around the movement, distribution, and quality of the water and involves all the components of the hydrologic cycle on the Earth and its atmosphere (or hydrosphere). "Sub-disciplines of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface water hydrology, hydrogeology, watershed science, forest hydrology, and water chemistry."
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

Chronology

chronologicalchronological ordertimeline
Typically, earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the earth works and evolves.
It is also part of the discipline of history, including earth history, the earth sciences, and study of the geologic time scale.

Climatology

climatologistclimate scienceclimatological
Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and biogeography.
This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences.

Physical geography

physiographicphysiographyphysiographically
Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and biogeography.
Hydrology is predominantly concerned with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks near the surface and is typified by the hydrological cycle. Thus the field encompasses water in rivers, lakes, aquifers and to an extent glaciers, in which the field examines the process and dynamics involved in these bodies of water. Hydrology has historically had an important connection with engineering and has thus developed a largely quantitative method in its research; however, it does have an earth science side that embraces the systems approach. Similar to most fields of physical geography it has sub-fields that examine the specific bodies of water or their interaction with other spheres e.g. limnology and ecohydrology.

Geodesy

geodeticgeodesistgeodesic
Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is commonly used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity.
Geodesy, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding the Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platetectonic platesplate tectonic
Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is commonly used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity. Plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the earth's crust.
The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Geophysics

geophysicistgeophysicalgeophysicists
Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is commonly used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity.
Geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary subject, and geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and biogeography.
Other than some notable exceptions in antiquity, geomorphology is a relatively young science, growing along with interest in other aspects of the earth sciences in the mid-19th century.

Oceanography

oceanographeroceanographicmarine science
Hydrology, oceanography and limnology are a study revolved around the movement, distribution, and quality of the water and involves all the components of the hydrologic cycle on the Earth and its atmosphere (or hydrosphere). "Sub-disciplines of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface water hydrology, hydrogeology, watershed science, forest hydrology, and water chemistry."
It is an Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.

Branches of science

scientific disciplineField of sciencescientific field
The following fields of science are generally categorized within the earth sciences:
Oceanography, or marine biology, is the branch of Earth science that studies ocean.

Glaciology

glaciologistglaciologicalglacial geology
Glaciology covers the icy parts of the Earth (or cryosphere).
Glaciology is an interdisciplinary Earth science that integrates geophysics, geology, physical geography, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology.

Figure of the Earth

curvature of the Earthshape of the Earthnature of the curvature of the earth
Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is commonly used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity.
In the mid- to late 20th century, research across the geosciences contributed to drastic improvements in the accuracy of the figure of the Earth.

Pedology

pedologistpedologicalpedologists
Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and biogeography. Soil science covers the outermost layer of the earth's crust that is subject to soil formation processes (or pedosphere). Major subdisciplines include edaphology and pedology.
Soils lie at the interface of Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Therefore, a thorough understanding of soils requires some knowledge of meteorology, climatology, ecology, biology, hydrology, geomorphology, geology and many other earth sciences and natural sciences.

Soil science

soil scientistsoil sciencessoil scientists
Soil science covers the outermost layer of the earth's crust that is subject to soil formation processes (or pedosphere). Major subdisciplines include edaphology and pedology.
Soil occupies the pedosphere, one of Earth's spheres that the geosciences use to organize the Earth conceptually.

Earth

terrestrialworldGlobal
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth science

Paleoclimatology

paleoclimatepaleoclimatologistpaleoclimatic
Paleoclimatology
It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, shells, and microfossils.

Atmospheric physics

atmospheric physicistatmosphericatmosphere physics
Atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth (or atmosphere) between the surface and the exosphere (about 1000 km). Major subdisciplines include meteorology, climatology, atmospheric chemistry, and atmospheric physics.
Other uses include different areas of the earth sciences such as natural resource management, agricultural fields such as land usage and conservation, and national security and overhead, ground-based and stand-off collection on border areas.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Typically, earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the earth works and evolves.
Earth science

Mountain

mountainsmountainouspeak
Plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the earth's crust.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

Geoarchaeology

geoarchaeologistarchaeological geologygeoarchaeological
Geoarchaeology
Geoarchaeology is a multi-disciplinary approach which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography, geology and other Earth sciences to examine topics which inform archaeological knowledge and thought.