A report on East Africa

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).
The Bab-el-Mandeb crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, narrower in prehistory.
Early Iron Age findings in East and Southern Africa
Map of British East Africa in 1911

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

- East Africa
Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).

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Tanzania

11 links

A 1.8-million-year-old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and on display at the British Museum.
A 1572 depiction of the portuguese city of Kilwa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Battle during the Maji Maji Rebellion against German colonial rule in 1905.
The Arusha Declaration Monument
Wildebeest migration in the Serengeti
Tanzania map of Köppen climate classification
The Masai giraffe is Tanzania's national animal
The semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago
Regions of Tanzania
Tanzanian ambassador to Russia Jaka Mwambi presenting his credentials to the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Tanzanian Embassy in West End, Washington, D.C., USA
FIB Tanzanian special forces during training
A proportional representation of Tanzania exports, 2019
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Tanzania, since 1950
Tea fields in Tukuyu
Nyerere Bridge in Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam
The snowcapped Uhuru Peak
One of the main trunk roads
Zanzibar harbour
Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.3
A Tanzanian woman cooks Pilau rice dish wearing traditional Kanga.
Farmers using a rice harvester to harvest rice in Igunga District, Tanzania
Example of a World Food Programme parcel
Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year
Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded
The Hadza live as hunter-gatherers.
A carved door with Arabic calligraphy in Zanzibar
Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam
Development of life expectancy
Tanzanian woman harvest tea leaves
Judith Wambura (Lady Jaydee) is a popular Bongo Flava recording singer.
A Tingatinga painting
National Stadium in Dar es Salaam.
St Joseph's Catholic cathedral, Zanzibar
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha
East African Legislative Assembly in Arusha
Tanzanian Ngoma group

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

Kenya

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The Turkana boy, a 1.6-million-year-old hominid fossil belonging to Homo erectus.
A traditional Swahili carved wooden door in Lamu.
Portuguese presence in Kenya lasted from 1498 until 1730. Mombasa was under Portuguese rule from 1593 to 1698 and again from 1728 to 1729.
British East Africa in 1909
The Kenya–Uganda Railway near Mombasa, about 1899.
A statue of Dedan Kimathi, a Kenyan rebel leader with the Mau Mau who fought against the British colonial system in the 1950s.
The first president and founding father of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta.
Daniel arap Moi, Kenya's second President, and George W. Bush, 2001
Uhuru Kenyatta in 2014.
A map of Kenya.
A Köppen climate classification map of Kenya.
Kenya's third president, Mwai Kibaki
The Supreme Court of Kenya building.
President Barack Obama in Nairobi, July 2015
Emblem of the Kenya Defence Forces
Kenya's 47 counties.
A proportional representation of Kenya exports, 2019
Kenya, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970–2010.
Amboseli National Park
Tsavo East National Park
Tea farm near Kericho, Kericho County.
Agricultural countryside in Kenya
The Kenya Commercial Bank office at KENCOM House (right) in Nairobi.
Workers at Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant
The official logo of Vision 2030.
Lake Turkana borders Turkana County
Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara
Maasai people. The Maasai live in both Kenya and Tanzania.
Child labour in Kenya
A Bantu Kikuyu woman in traditional attire
Holy Ghost Roman Catholic Cathedral in Mombasa.
Outpatient Department of AIC Kapsowar Hospital in Kapsowar.
Table showing different grades of clinical officers, medical officers, and medical practitioners in Kenya's public service
School children in a classroom.
An MSc student at Kenyatta University in Nairobi.
A Maasai girl at school.
Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional dance
Nation Media House, which hosts the Nation Media Group
Kenyan author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o.
Popular Kenyan musician Jua Cali.
Jepkosgei Kipyego and Jepkemoi Cheruiyot at the 2012 London Olympics
Kenyan Olympic and world record holder in the 800 meters, David Rudisha.
Ugali and sukuma wiki, staples of Kenyan cuisine

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya (Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa.

Uganda

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A caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, in the Empire of Kitara (present-day Uganda) as observed by medical missionary Robert William Felkin in 1879. This incident was recorded long before the arrival of the European missionary doctors and clinics. The kingdom performed a highly developed surgical procedure, the first-ever cesarean section technique that saved both the mother and child.
Flag of the Uganda Protectorate
Construction of the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja.
The Uganda printers building on Kampala Road, Kampala, Uganda
Grey Crowned Crane - a symbol of Uganda.
Belligerents of the Second Congo War. On 19 December 2005, the International Court of Justice found against Uganda, in a case brought by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for illegal invasion of its territory, and violation of human rights.
Uganda map of Köppen climate classification.
U.S. President George W. Bush met with President Yoweri Museveni in Entebbe, Uganda, 11 July 2003.
Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill.
Graphical depiction of Uganda's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Change in per capita GDP of Uganda, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Coffee fields in southwestern Uganda
Workers at a textile factory in Jinja
Entebbe International Airport
Road to Murchison
Mobile operators offer money sending, receiving services, bill payments among many more services.
Students in Uganda
Development of life expectancy
Rwenzori mountains in Uganda
An ethnolinguistic map of Uganda
Cultural celebrations in Northern Uganda
Woman in Rwenzori – Western Uganda
Mandela National Stadium in Kira Town.
Side view of Victoria Nile
Saint Mary's Cathedral Rubaga, is the parent cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala.

Uganda (Yuganda in Ugandan languages), officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Ugandaa nne ), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.

Horn of Africa

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The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.
King Ezana's Stela at Aksum, symbol of the Aksumite civilization.
Ancient trading centers in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The citadel in Gondershe, an important city in the medieval Ajuran Sultanate
The Lalibela churches carved by the Zagwe dynasty in the 12th century.
King Fasilides's Castle in Gondar
The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort
Map of Africa in 1909. The Horn region is the easternmost projection of the African continent.
Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation's history.
Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia since 1886.
The Horn of Africa as seen from the NASA Space Shuttle in May 1993. The orange and tan colors in this image indicate a largely arid to semiarid climate.
The Horn of Africa. NASA image
Oryx beisa beisa is found throughout the Horn of Africa
Myrrh, a common resin in the Horn
A woman from Ethiopia carrying her earthenware water jugs
Coffee beans from Ethiopia

The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula in East Africa.

East African Community

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From left to right: President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, President Mwai Kibaki of Kenya, and President Jakaya Kikwete of Tanzania during the eighth EAC summit in Arusha, November 2006.
EAC heads in 2009. From left to right: Yoweri Museveni (Uganda), Mwai Kibaki (Kenya), Paul Kagame (Rwanda), Jakaya Kikwete (Tanzania), Pierre Nkurunziza (Burundi).
Rwandan President Paul Kagame at the 2006 EAC summit. Rwanda joined the EAC on 1 July 2007.
Three EAC countries border Lake Victoria.
Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's tallest peak, located in Tanzania.
Diani Beach, Kilifi County, Kenya.
{{flagicon|Burundi}} Burundi
{{flagicon|Democratic Republic of the Congo}} Democratic Republic of the Congo
{{flagicon|Kenya}} Kenya
{{flagicon|Rwanda}} Rwanda
{{flagicon|South Sudan}} South Sudan
{{flagicon|Tanzania}} Tanzania
{{flagicon|Uganda}} Uganda

The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation composed of seven countries in the Great Lakes region of East Africa: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the United Republic of Tanzania, the Republics of Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda.

The totality of Africa seen by the Apollo 17 crew

Africa

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World's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases.

World's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases.

The totality of Africa seen by the Apollo 17 crew
Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered 24 November 1974 in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Diachronic map showing African empires spanning roughly 500 BCE to 1500 CE
The Ezana Stone records King Ezana's conversion to Christianity and his subjugation of various neighboring peoples, including Meroë.
The intricate 9th-century bronzes from Igbo-Ukwu, in Nigeria displayed a level of technical accomplishment that was notably more advanced than European bronze casting of the same period.
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)
Major slave trading regions of Africa, 15th–19th centuries.
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
Topography of Africa
Today, the African Plate is moving over Earth's surface at a speed of 0.292° ± 0.007° per million years, relative to the "average" Earth (NNR-MORVEL56)
The main biomes in Africa.
Africa Water Precipitation
Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania
African countries by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2020
A map showing religious distribution in Africa
A simplistic view of language families spoken in Africa
The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela, Ethiopia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nok figure (5th century BC-5th century AD)
A musician from South Africa
Best results of African men's national football teams at the FIFA World Cup
An animated map shows the order of independence of African nations, 1950–2011
Africa's wars and conflicts, 1980–96 {{legend|#cc4c02|Major Wars/Conflict (100,000 + Casualties)}}{{legend|#fe9929|Minor Wars/Conflict}}{{legend|#fed98e|Other Conflicts}}
Political map of Africa in 2021
Map of the African Economic Community.
CEN-SAD
COMESA
EAC
ECCAS
ECOWAS
IGAD
SADC
UMA

Africa, particularly Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes).

Swahili in Arabic script—memorial plate at the Askari Monument, Dar es Salaam (1927)

Swahili language

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Native language of the Waswahili who are found along the East African coast and litoral islands .

Native language of the Waswahili who are found along the East African coast and litoral islands .

Swahili in Arabic script—memorial plate at the Askari Monument, Dar es Salaam (1927)
Although originally written with the Arabic script, Swahili is now written in a Latin alphabet introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators. The text shown here is the Catholic version of the Lord's Prayer.
Swahili in Arabic script on the clothes of a girl in German East Africa (ca. early 1900s)
Loxodonta africana elephants frolic in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, 2012.

It is a lingua franca of other areas in the African Great Lakes region and East and Southern Africa, including some parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Malawi, Mozambique, the southern tip of Somalia, and Zambia.

Zambia

6 links

Ancient (but graffitied) Rock Art in Nsalu Cave, Kasanka National Park in North-Central Zambia.
Batonga fisherwomen in Southern Zambia. Women have played and continue to play important roles in many African societies.
Ruins z q r. of Great Zimbabwe. Kalanga/Shona rulers of this kingdom dominated trade at Ingombe Ilede.
Drawing of the ruler of Lunda, Mwata Kazembe, receiving Portuguese in the royal courtyard in the 1800s
A drawing of Lunda houses by a Portuguese visitor. The size of the doorways relative to the building emphasizes the scale of the buildings.
The kalonga (ruler) of the AChewa today descends from the kalonga of the Maravi Empire.
Three young Ngoni chiefs. The Ngoni made their way into Eastern Zambia from KwaZulu in South Africa. They eventually assimilated into the local ethnic groups.
Inside the palace of the Litunga, ruler of the Lozi. Due to the flooding on the Zambezi, the Litunga has two palaces one of which is on higher ground. The movement of Litunga to higher land is celebrated at the Kuomboka Ceremony
An 1864 photograph of the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone.
Kenneth Kaunda, first Republican president, on a state visit to Romania in 1970
The geopolitical situation during the Rhodesian Bush War in 1965 – countries friendly to the nationalists are coloured orange.
Zambia National Assembly building in Lusaka
President Edgar Lungu with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 26 July 2018
Zambia map of Köppen climate classification.
Victoria Falls
The Mwata Kazembe opens the Mutomboko ceremony
Tribal and linguistic map of Zambia
Pupils at the St Monica's Girls Secondary School in Chipata, Eastern Province
A proportional representation of Zambia exports, 2019
Zambia Export Treemap (2014)
GDP per capita (current), compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100)
The major Nkana open copper mine, Kitwe.
Nshima (top right corner) with three types of relish.
A Yombe sculpture, 19th century.
National Heroes Stadium in Lusaka.

Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa, and also is typically referred to as being in South-Central Africa.

South Sudan

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Landlocked country in Central Africa.

Landlocked country in Central Africa.

John Garang de Mabior led the Sudan People's Liberation Army until his death in 2005.
A South Sudanese girl at independence festivities
Military situation in South Sudan on 22 March 2020
Under control of the Government of South Sudan
Under control of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-in-Opposition
Under control of the Government of Sudan
Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first President of South Sudan. His trademark Stetson hat was a gift from United States President George W. Bush.
South Sudan's presidential guard on Independence Day, 2011
The ten states and three administrative areas of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan Bahr el Ghazal Equatoria Greater Upper Nile
The 32 states of South Sudan, after the addition of 4 more states in 2017
The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan Bahr el Ghazal Equatoria Greater Upper Nile
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meets with President Salva Kiir, 26 May 2013
Protected areas in South Sudan
South Sudan map of Köppen climate classification.
John Garang Square in Juba
Children in Yambio, Western Equatoria, South Sudan
Rural school children participating in the USAID-funded Southern Sudan Interactive Radio Instruction project, July 2010
Woman in South Sudan
A village in South Sudan
Sunday Mass in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rumbek
Scarified tribeswoman, South Sudan, 2011
South Sudanese-born basketball player Luol Deng
A proportional representation of South Sudan exports, 2019
Loka Teaks is the largest teak plantation in Africa.
Oil and gas concessions in Sudan – 2004
Passengers atop a train travelling towards Wau
Two Mil Mi-17 helicopters at Juba Airport
Jamam refugee camp

On 25 November 2011, it officially joined the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional grouping of East African states.

Ethiopia

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Landlocked country in the Horn of Africa.

Landlocked country in the Horn of Africa.

A Homo sapiens idaltu hominid skull
Kibish has the site of oldest fossil of human bones believed to be 195,000 years old along with Omo River. The skull remains are 40,000 older than in Herto, Ethiopia
The Obelisk of Axum dates from the 4th century
Aksumite currency of the Aksumite king called Endubis, 227–35, at the British Museum. The inscriptions in Ancient Greek read "ΑΧΩΜΙΤΩ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King of Axum") and "ΕΝΔΥΒΙΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King Endubis"), the Greek language was the lingua franca by that time so its use in coins simplified foreign trade.
The Kingdom of Aksum at its peak in the 6th century
Manuscript illustration by Rashi ad-Din's "World History", depicting the King of Axum rejecting Meccan delegation to yield Muslims in the kingdom
Church of Saint George is one of amongst 11 rock-hewn churches of Zagwe's King Lalibela achievement
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Dawit II (r. 1507–1540), a member of the Solomonic dynasty
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling Emperor Yagbea-Sion and his men.
Emperor Susenyos I was the first emperor converted to Roman Catholic in 1622, stressing the populace attitude of Orthodox Tewahedo Christianity
Emperor Tewodros II ((r. 1855 – 1868)) brought an end of Zemene Mesafint
The conquests of Emperor Yohannes IV, Negus Menelik and general Ras Alula in 1879–1889
Haile Selassie at his study in Jubilee Palace (1942)
Ethiopian cavalry during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1936
Ras Seyoum Mengesha, Ras Getachew Abate and Ras Kebede Gubret with Benito Mussolini on 6 February 1937 in Rome, Italy, after the Italian occupation of Ethiopia
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP) clashed with the Derg during the Red Terror
Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam (left) with fellow Derg members Tafari Benti (middle) and Atnafu Abate (right). Mengistu was sentenced to death in Ethiopia for crimes committed during his government, which killed up to 500,000 people; he lived in exile in Zimbabwe as of 2018.
Former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi at the 2012 World Economic Forum annual meeting
Former Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn meeting with former US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter in Addis Ababa.
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in 2019
House of People's Representatives is the lower house of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly
Former Foreign Minister of Ethiopia Tedros Adhanom with former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin in May 2018
The Ethiopian National Defense Force soldiers during ceremony in Baidoa, Somalia to mark the inclusion of Ethiopia into the African Union peace keeping mission in the country on 22 January 2014
The Ethiopian Federal Police Marching Band performing on annual festival in Meskel Square, Addis Ababa on 16 September 2017
Karo people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Map of regions and zones of Ethiopia
Wonchi Lake at the crossroads between Ambo and Waliso in Oromia Region
Köppen climate classification of Ethiopia
Mountain nyalas in Bale Mountains National Park, one of several wildlife reserves in Ethiopia
Development of GDP per capita
A proportional representation of Ethiopia exports, 2019
Layout of the Grand Renaissance Dam
Tef field near Mojo
Ethiopia Export Treemap from MIT–Harvard Economic Complexity Observatory
Ethiopian Blessed Coffee branded bags in the United States. Coffee is one of main exports of Ethiopia.
Light rail in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A Boeing 787-8 of Ethiopian Airlines
The subterranean rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Orthodox priests dancing during the celebration of Timkat
A mosque in Bahir Dar
Street in Addis Ababa
Gondar skyline
Rural area in the Simien Mountains National Park
Street scene in Adigrat
Declining child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia since 1950
An Ethiopian girl about to receive her measles vaccine
Community health care workers
Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital
Entrance of Addis Ababa University
An Ethiopian woman roasting coffee bean in coffee house. Coffee serving ceremony is the most important course in Ethiopia.
Alwan Codex 27 – Ethiopian biblical manuscript
Illustration showing two Aksumite scribes
The Royal Enclosure at Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar
Giyorgis of Segla, prolific religious author in the Late Middle Ages
Tsegaye Gebre-Medhin in 1980s
Model commemorating the Obelisk of Aksum's return to Ethiopia from Italy, showing the date of its departure and return according to the Ethiopian calendar
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew)
Meskel commemorates the discovery of True Cross by Roman queen Helena in 326 AD
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation headquarter in Addis Ababa
Aksumite composer Yared credited with forebear of traditional music for both Ethiopia and Eritrea
Mahmoud Ahmed performing in 2005
Hager Fikir Theatre in April 2006
Kenenisa Bekele in 2012. Track and field athletics often prosper Ethiopia to participate in Olympics
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Menelik II at the Battle of Adwa
Emperor Fasilides (r. 1632–1667) was a major figure of Gondarine period
Emperor Iyoas I (r. 1755–1769) prematurely murdered at his reign by Ras Mikael Sehul in 1769
Semien Mountains landscape, 2009
Genzebe Dibaba middle- and long-distance runner. A 1500 metres 2016 Rio Olympics silver medalist, she won a gold medal in this event and a bronze in the 5000 metres at the 2015 World Championships.

In East Africa, over 95% of cross-border trade is through unofficial channels.