A report on Ethiopia and East Africa

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).
The Bab-el-Mandeb crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, narrower in prehistory.
A Homo sapiens idaltu hominid skull
Early Iron Age findings in East and Southern Africa
Map of British East Africa in 1911
Kibish has the site of oldest fossil of human bones believed to be 195,000 years old along with Omo River. The skull remains are 40,000 older than in Herto, Ethiopia
The Obelisk of Axum dates from the 4th century
Aksumite currency of the Aksumite king called Endubis, 227–35, at the British Museum. The inscriptions in Ancient Greek read "ΑΧΩΜΙΤΩ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King of Axum") and "ΕΝΔΥΒΙΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King Endubis"), the Greek language was the lingua franca by that time so its use in coins simplified foreign trade.
The Kingdom of Aksum at its peak in the 6th century
Manuscript illustration by Rashi ad-Din's "World History", depicting the King of Axum rejecting Meccan delegation to yield Muslims in the kingdom
Church of Saint George is one of amongst 11 rock-hewn churches of Zagwe's King Lalibela achievement
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Dawit II (r. 1507–1540), a member of the Solomonic dynasty
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling Emperor Yagbea-Sion and his men.
Emperor Susenyos I was the first emperor converted to Roman Catholic in 1622, stressing the populace attitude of Orthodox Tewahedo Christianity
Emperor Tewodros II ((r. 1855 – 1868)) brought an end of Zemene Mesafint
The conquests of Emperor Yohannes IV, Negus Menelik and general Ras Alula in 1879–1889
Haile Selassie at his study in Jubilee Palace (1942)
Ethiopian cavalry during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1936
Ras Seyoum Mengesha, Ras Getachew Abate and Ras Kebede Gubret with Benito Mussolini on 6 February 1937 in Rome, Italy, after the Italian occupation of Ethiopia
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP) clashed with the Derg during the Red Terror
Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam (left) with fellow Derg members Tafari Benti (middle) and Atnafu Abate (right). Mengistu was sentenced to death in Ethiopia for crimes committed during his government, which killed up to 500,000 people; he lived in exile in Zimbabwe as of 2018.
Former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi at the 2012 World Economic Forum annual meeting
Former Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn meeting with former US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter in Addis Ababa.
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in 2019
House of People's Representatives is the lower house of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly
Former Foreign Minister of Ethiopia Tedros Adhanom with former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin in May 2018
The Ethiopian National Defense Force soldiers during ceremony in Baidoa, Somalia to mark the inclusion of Ethiopia into the African Union peace keeping mission in the country on 22 January 2014
The Ethiopian Federal Police Marching Band performing on annual festival in Meskel Square, Addis Ababa on 16 September 2017
Karo people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Map of regions and zones of Ethiopia
Wonchi Lake at the crossroads between Ambo and Waliso in Oromia Region
Köppen climate classification of Ethiopia
Mountain nyalas in Bale Mountains National Park, one of several wildlife reserves in Ethiopia
Development of GDP per capita
A proportional representation of Ethiopia exports, 2019
Layout of the Grand Renaissance Dam
Tef field near Mojo
Ethiopia Export Treemap from MIT–Harvard Economic Complexity Observatory
Ethiopian Blessed Coffee branded bags in the United States. Coffee is one of main exports of Ethiopia.
Light rail in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A Boeing 787-8 of Ethiopian Airlines
The subterranean rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Orthodox priests dancing during the celebration of Timkat
A mosque in Bahir Dar
Street in Addis Ababa
Gondar skyline
Rural area in the Simien Mountains National Park
Street scene in Adigrat
Declining child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia since 1950
An Ethiopian girl about to receive her measles vaccine
Community health care workers
Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital
Entrance of Addis Ababa University
An Ethiopian woman roasting coffee bean in coffee house. Coffee serving ceremony is the most important course in Ethiopia.
Alwan Codex 27 – Ethiopian biblical manuscript
Illustration showing two Aksumite scribes
The Royal Enclosure at Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar
Giyorgis of Segla, prolific religious author in the Late Middle Ages
Tsegaye Gebre-Medhin in 1980s
Model commemorating the Obelisk of Aksum's return to Ethiopia from Italy, showing the date of its departure and return according to the Ethiopian calendar
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew)
Meskel commemorates the discovery of True Cross by Roman queen Helena in 326 AD
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation headquarter in Addis Ababa
Aksumite composer Yared credited with forebear of traditional music for both Ethiopia and Eritrea
Mahmoud Ahmed performing in 2005
Hager Fikir Theatre in April 2006
Kenenisa Bekele in 2012. Track and field athletics often prosper Ethiopia to participate in Olympics
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Menelik II at the Battle of Adwa
Emperor Fasilides (r. 1632–1667) was a major figure of Gondarine period
Emperor Iyoas I (r. 1755–1769) prematurely murdered at his reign by Ras Mikael Sehul in 1769
Semien Mountains landscape, 2009
Genzebe Dibaba middle- and long-distance runner. A 1500 metres 2016 Rio Olympics silver medalist, she won a gold medal in this event and a bronze in the 5000 metres at the 2015 World Championships.

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia are collectively known as the Horn of Africa. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent.

- East Africa

In East Africa, over 95% of cross-border trade is through unofficial channels.

- Ethiopia

9 related topics with Alpha


The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.

Horn of Africa

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The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.
King Ezana's Stela at Aksum, symbol of the Aksumite civilization.
Ancient trading centers in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The citadel in Gondershe, an important city in the medieval Ajuran Sultanate
The Lalibela churches carved by the Zagwe dynasty in the 12th century.
King Fasilides's Castle in Gondar
The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort
Map of Africa in 1909. The Horn region is the easternmost projection of the African continent.
Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation's history.
Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia since 1886.
The Horn of Africa as seen from the NASA Space Shuttle in May 1993. The orange and tan colors in this image indicate a largely arid to semiarid climate.
The Horn of Africa. NASA image
Oryx beisa beisa is found throughout the Horn of Africa
Myrrh, a common resin in the Horn
A woman from Ethiopia carrying her earthenware water jugs
Coffee beans from Ethiopia

The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula in East Africa.

It is composed of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Somaliland and Djibouti; broader definitions also include parts or all of Kenya, Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda.


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Deka Rock Art in Deka Arbaa, Debub region of Eritrea dated to 100,000 years ago
Pre-Axumite monolithic columns in Qohaito
Bronze oil lamp excavated at Matara, dating from the Kingdom of Dʿmt (first century BC or earlier)
Bahta Hagos was an important leader of the Eritrean resistance to foreign domination, specifically against northern Ethiopian and Italian colonialism.
Postcard of the Carabinieri sent from Italian Eritrea in 1907
Piazza Roma in Italian Asmara
Eritrean War of Independence against Ethiopia 1961–1991
A view over Asmara
Map of Eritrea
The Dahlak Archipelago
Pelicans in a pond near Asmara
Eritrean landscape near road to Massawa
President Isaias Afewerki with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, December 2002
The 23d ISCOE East Africa Conference in Asmara in 2019
Independence Day is one of the most important public holidays in Eritrea.
A map of Eritrea regions. 1.Northern Red Sea, 2.Anseba, 3.Gash-Barka, 4.Central (to right), 5.Southern, 6.Southern Red Sea
Eritrean mountain road
Steam train outside Asmara on the Eritrean Railway
Eritrea's main exports, 2013
A woman and a man in Barentu wearing traditional clothes
Population pyramid of Eritrea 2016
Building of regional administration in Asmara
Asmara, Eritrea in 2015
Traditional Eritrean agudo/tukul huts in a village near Barentu
The Eritrea Institute of Technology
Eritrean pupils in uniform
Eritrean injera with various stews
Eritrean artist Helen Meles
Tour of Eritrea cycling competition in Asmara, Eritrea.

Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of Eastern Africa, with its capital and largest city at Asmara.

It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast.


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The Turkana boy, a 1.6-million-year-old hominid fossil belonging to Homo erectus.
A traditional Swahili carved wooden door in Lamu.
Portuguese presence in Kenya lasted from 1498 until 1730. Mombasa was under Portuguese rule from 1593 to 1698 and again from 1728 to 1729.
British East Africa in 1909
The Kenya–Uganda Railway near Mombasa, about 1899.
A statue of Dedan Kimathi, a Kenyan rebel leader with the Mau Mau who fought against the British colonial system in the 1950s.
The first president and founding father of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta.
Daniel arap Moi, Kenya's second President, and George W. Bush, 2001
Uhuru Kenyatta in 2014.
A map of Kenya.
A Köppen climate classification map of Kenya.
Kenya's third president, Mwai Kibaki
The Supreme Court of Kenya building.
President Barack Obama in Nairobi, July 2015
Emblem of the Kenya Defence Forces
Kenya's 47 counties.
A proportional representation of Kenya exports, 2019
Kenya, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970–2010.
Amboseli National Park
Tsavo East National Park
Tea farm near Kericho, Kericho County.
Agricultural countryside in Kenya
The Kenya Commercial Bank office at KENCOM House (right) in Nairobi.
Workers at Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant
The official logo of Vision 2030.
Lake Turkana borders Turkana County
Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara
Maasai people. The Maasai live in both Kenya and Tanzania.
Child labour in Kenya
A Bantu Kikuyu woman in traditional attire
Holy Ghost Roman Catholic Cathedral in Mombasa.
Outpatient Department of AIC Kapsowar Hospital in Kapsowar.
Table showing different grades of clinical officers, medical officers, and medical practitioners in Kenya's public service
School children in a classroom.
An MSc student at Kenyatta University in Nairobi.
A Maasai girl at school.
Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional dance
Nation Media House, which hosts the Nation Media Group
Kenyan author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o.
Popular Kenyan musician Jua Cali.
Jepkosgei Kipyego and Jepkemoi Cheruiyot at the 2012 London Olympics
Kenyan Olympic and world record holder in the 800 meters, David Rudisha.
Ugali and sukuma wiki, staples of Kenyan cuisine

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya (Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa.

Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west, Tanzania to the south, and the Indian Ocean to the southeast.


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Geometric design pottery found in Asa Koma
Prehistoric rock art and tombs in Djibouti
Queen Ati, wife of King Perahu of Punt, as depicted on Pharaoh Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri
Approximate extension of the Kingdom of Adal
The Ifat Sultanate's realm in the 14th century
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling King Yagbea-Sion and his men
The Ottoman Eyalet in 1566
Map of the French Somali Coast and neighboring regions in 1870
Referendum demonstration in Djibouti in 1967
An aerial view of Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti
The Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis (FLCS)
Ahmed Dini Ahmed proclaiming the Djibouti Declaration of Independence on 27 June 1977
President of Djibouti, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh
Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed, Prime Minister of Djibouti
The Djibouti National Assembly in Djibouti City
Maryama base during a martial exercise in the Arta Region
Grand Bara desert in 2017
A map of Djibouti's regions
Djibouti map of Köppen climate classification.
The Djibouti francolin, a critically endangered species living only in Djibouti
Plant species on the Forêt du Day National Park
Djibouti GDP by sector
A proportional representation of Djibouti's exports
Djibouti's gross domestic product expanded by an average of more than 6 percent per year, from US$341 million in 1985 to US$1.5 billion in 2015
Main Terminal at Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport
The Djibouti Telecom headquarters in Djibouti City
Arta Plage on the Gulf of Tadjoura
Entrance to the ISSS Faculty of Medicine in Djibouti City
Djiboutian women participating in the Global Pulse educational initiative (2010)
Traditional wood-carved jar from Oue'a in the Tadjourah region
The oud is a common instrument in traditional Djibouti music.
El Hadj Hassan Gouled Aptidon Stadium in Djibouti City
A plate of sambusas, a popular traditional snack
Lake Assal
Traditional houses on the Mabla Mountains
Lake Abbe
The mountains near Dasbiyo
thumb|Beach south of Djibouti City, overlooking the Gulf of Aden
General Paul Legentilhomme in French Somaliland, 1939 or 1940

Djibouti, officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Somalia to the south, Ethiopia to the southwest, Eritrea in the north, and the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden to the east.

The Bab-el-Mandeb region has often been considered a primary crossing point for early hominins following a southern coastal route from East Africa to South and Southeast Asia.

South Sudan

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Landlocked country in Central Africa.

Landlocked country in Central Africa.

John Garang de Mabior led the Sudan People's Liberation Army until his death in 2005.
A South Sudanese girl at independence festivities
Military situation in South Sudan on 22 March 2020
Under control of the Government of South Sudan
Under control of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-in-Opposition
Under control of the Government of Sudan
Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first President of South Sudan. His trademark Stetson hat was a gift from United States President George W. Bush.
South Sudan's presidential guard on Independence Day, 2011
The ten states and three administrative areas of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan Bahr el Ghazal Equatoria Greater Upper Nile
The 32 states of South Sudan, after the addition of 4 more states in 2017
The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan Bahr el Ghazal Equatoria Greater Upper Nile
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meets with President Salva Kiir, 26 May 2013
Protected areas in South Sudan
South Sudan map of Köppen climate classification.
John Garang Square in Juba
Children in Yambio, Western Equatoria, South Sudan
Rural school children participating in the USAID-funded Southern Sudan Interactive Radio Instruction project, July 2010
Woman in South Sudan
A village in South Sudan
Sunday Mass in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rumbek
Scarified tribeswoman, South Sudan, 2011
South Sudanese-born basketball player Luol Deng
A proportional representation of South Sudan exports, 2019
Loka Teaks is the largest teak plantation in Africa.
Oil and gas concessions in Sudan – 2004
Passengers atop a train travelling towards Wau
Two Mil Mi-17 helicopters at Juba Airport
Jamam refugee camp

It is bordered by Ethiopia, Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Kenya.

On 25 November 2011, it officially joined the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional grouping of East African states.

Areas of Africa controlled by European colonial powers in 1913 (Belgian (yellow), British (salmon), French (blue), German (turquoise), Italian (green), Portuguese (purple), and Spanish (pink) Empires)

Scramble for Africa

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The invasion, annexation, division, and colonization of most of Africa by seven Western European powers during a short period known as New Imperialism .

The invasion, annexation, division, and colonization of most of Africa by seven Western European powers during a short period known as New Imperialism .

Areas of Africa controlled by European colonial powers in 1913 (Belgian (yellow), British (salmon), French (blue), German (turquoise), Italian (green), Portuguese (purple), and Spanish (pink) Empires)
David Livingstone, early explorer of the interior of Africa and fighter against the slave trade
Map of African civilizations and kingdoms prior to European colonialism (spanning roughly 500 BCE to 1500 CE)
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
Contemporary French propaganda poster hailing Major Marchand's trek across Africa toward Fashoda in 1898
The Askari colonial troops in German East Africa, c. 1906
Italian aircraft in action against Ottoman forces during the Italian invasion of Libya in the Italo-Turkish War
Henry Morton Stanley
Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in his version of "native" dress, photographed by Félix Nadar
From 1885 to 1908, many atrocities were perpetrated in the Congo Free State; in the image Native Congo Free State labourers who failed to meet rubber collection quotas punished by having their hands cut off.
Port Said entrance to Suez Canal, showing De Lesseps' statue
Otto von Bismarck at the Berlin Conference, 1884
Boer child in a British concentration camp during the Second Boer War (1899–1902)
Muhammad Ahmad, leader of the Mahdists. This fundamentalist group of Muslim dervishes overran much of Sudan and fought British forces.
Map depicting the staged pacification of Morocco through to 1934
The Moroccan Sultan Abdelhafid, who led the resistance to French expansionism during the Agadir Crisis
Pygmies and a European. Some pygmies would be exposed in human zoos, such as Ota Benga displayed by eugenicist Madison Grant in the Bronx Zoo.
Poster for the 1906 Colonial Exhibition in Marseilles (France)
Poster for the 1897 Brussels International Exposition.
German Cameroon, painting by R. Hellgrewe, 1908
Equestrian statue of Leopold II of Belgium, the Sovereign of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908, Regent Place in Brussels, Belgium
The Foureau-Lamy military expedition sent out from Algiers in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa.
The Senegalese Tirailleurs, led by Colonel Alfred-Amédée Dodds, conquered Dahomey (present-day Benin) in 1892
Italian settlers in Massawa
Marracuene in Portuguese Mozambique was the site of a decisive battle between Portuguese and Gaza king Gungunhana in 1895
Opening of the railway in Rhodesia, 1899
Following the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War in 1896, the British proclaimed a protectorate over the Ashanti Kingdom.
Oil and gas concessions in the Sudan – 2004
Lieutenant von Durling with prisoners at Shark Island, one of the German concentration camps used during the Herero and Namaqua genocide

In the middle of the 19th century, European explorers mapped much of East Africa and Central Africa.

The Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–36), ordered by the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, was the last colonial war (that is, intended to colonise a country, as opposed to wars of national liberation), occupying Ethiopia—which had remained the last independent African territory, apart from Liberia.

A map of East Africa showing some of the historically active volcanoes (as red triangles) and the Afar Triangle (shaded at the center), which is a so-called triple junction (or triple point) where three plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate and two parts of the African Plate—the Nubian and Somali—splitting along the East African Rift Zone

East African Rift

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A map of East Africa showing some of the historically active volcanoes (as red triangles) and the Afar Triangle (shaded at the center), which is a so-called triple junction (or triple point) where three plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate and two parts of the African Plate—the Nubian and Somali—splitting along the East African Rift Zone
Main rift faults, plates, plate boundaries, GPS plate velocities between adjacent blocks and minimum horizontal stress directions
The northeast corner of Jacob's Ford in Israel visualizes the drift of the Arabian Plate against the Nubian Plate
An artificial rendering of the Albertine Rift, which forms the western branch of the East African Rift. Visible features include (from background to foreground): Lake Albert, the Rwenzori Mountains, Lake Edward, the volcanic Virunga Mountains, Lake Kivu, and the northern part of Lake Tanganyika

The East African Rift (EAR) or East African Rift System (EARS) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.

The EAR transects through Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo DR, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique.


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Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

The Nile's drainage basin
Spring at Lake Victoria
White Nile in Uganda
Nile Delta from space
The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm
Map of Nile tributaries in modern Sudan, showing the Yellow Nile
Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), an ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BC
An aerial view of irrigation from the Nile River supporting agriculture in Luxor, Egypt
A felucca traversing the Nile near Aswan
John Hanning Speke c. 1863. Speke was the Victorian explorer who first reached Lake Victoria in 1858, returning to establish it as the source of the Nile by 1862.
A map of the Nile c. 1911, a time when its entire primary course ran through British occupations, condominiums, colonies, and protectorates
The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches
Dhows on the Nile
The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city.
Hydropower dams in the Nile (plus huge dam under construction in Ethiopia)
View of the Qasr El Nil Bridge in Cairo, with Gezira Island in the background
El Mek Nimr Bridge in Khartoum
Henry Morton Stanley in 1872. Stanley circumnavigated the lake and confirmed Speke's observations in 1875.
Composite satellite image of the White Nile
Village on the Nile, 1891
Riverboat on the Nile, Egypt 1900
Marsh along the Nile
A river boat crossing the Nile in Uganda
Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga
The Nile in Luxor
The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite
The Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Nile in Cairo

About 6650 km long, its drainage basin covers eleven countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt.

The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia.

Jebel Irhoud-1, dated 286 kya, Smithsonian Natural History Museum

Jebel Irhoud

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Archaeological site located just north of the locality known as Tlet Ighoud, approximately 50 km south-east of the city of Safi in Morocco.

Archaeological site located just north of the locality known as Tlet Ighoud, approximately 50 km south-east of the city of Safi in Morocco.

Jebel Irhoud-1, dated 286 kya, Smithsonian Natural History Museum
Stone tools found at Jebel Irhoud
Jean-Jacques Hublin at Jebel Irhoud (Morocco), pointing to the crushed human skull (Irhoud 10), whose orbits are visible just beyond his finger tip
A composite reconstruction of the earliest-known Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud, based on micro-computed tomographic scans of multiple original fossils

This was consistent with the concept that the then-oldest-known remains of a Homo sapiens, dated to approximately 195,000 years ago and found in Omo Kibish, Ethiopia, indicated an eastern African origin for humans at approximately 200,000 years ago.

This suggests that, rather than arising in East Africa approximately 200,000 years ago, modern humans may have been present across the length of Africa 100,000 years earlier.