East Germany

East GermanGerman Democratic RepublicGDRGerman Democratic Republic (East Germany)DDREastEast GermansEast Germany (German Democratic Republic)GermanGermany
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.wikipedia
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New states of Germany

Eastern Germanyformer East GermanyOssi
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former East Germany that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.

West Berlin

West-BerlinWestBerlin
The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.
West Berlin was formally controlled by the Western Allies and was entirely surrounded by the Soviet-controlled East Berlin and East Germany.

Socialist Unity Party of Germany

SEDSocialist Unity PartySocialist Unity Party (''"Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands"'' / SED)
Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), often known in English as the East German Communist Party, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic (GDR; East Germany) from the country's foundation in October 1949 until its dissolution after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.

Economy of East Germany

Economy of the German Democratic RepublicEast German economycentral planning
The economy was centrally planned and increasingly state-owned.
East Germany had a command economy similar to the economic system in the Soviet Union and other Comecon member states (in contrast to the market economies or mixed economies of capitalist states).

Berlin Wall

fall of the Berlin WallWallthe wall
The government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall.
Construction of the Wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961.

German reunification

reunification of Germanyreunificationreunified
The GDR dissolved itself, and Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a fully sovereign state again.
German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, as provided by Article 23 of the FRG's then constitution (Grundgesetz).

West Germany

West GermanFederal Republic of GermanyGermany
The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones.
It took the line that the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was an illegally constituted puppet state.

Egon Krenz

Krenz, Egon
Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War.
Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former East German politician who was the last communist leader of East Germany during the final months of 1989.

1990 East German general election

1990free electionsfree election
The following year, open elections were held, and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
Legislative elections were held in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 18 March 1990.

East Berlin

BerlinEastEast-Berlin
Internally, the GDR also bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, which was also administered as the state's de facto capital. On 16 June 1953, workers constructing the new Stalinallee boulevard in East Berlin, according to The Sixteen Principles of Urban Design, rioted against a 10% production quota increase.
East Berlin was the capital city of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990.

Soviet occupation zone

Soviet Zone of OccupationSoviet ZoneSoviet Zone of occupation in Germany
It consisted of territory that was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet occupation zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line.
On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly referred to in English as East Germany, was established in the Soviet Occupation Zone.

Otto Grotewohl

Grotewohl[Prime Minister] Grotewohl
Socialist leader Otto Grotewohl (1894–1964) became prime minister until his death.
Otto Grotewohl (11 March 1894 – 21 September 1964) was a German politician who served as the first prime minister of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) from 1949 to 1964.

Walter Ulbricht

Ulbrichtnational leadershipleadership
In 1949 the Soviets turned control of East Germany over to the Socialist Unity Party, headed by Wilhelm Pieck (1876–1960), who became president of the GDR and held the office until his death, while most executive authority was assumed by SED General Secretary Walter Ulbricht.
Ulbricht played a leading role in the creation of the Weimar-era Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and later (after spending the years of Nazi rule in exile in France and the Soviet Union) in the early development and establishment of the German Democratic Republic in East Germany.

Wilhelm Pieck

President PieckPresident PieckWilhelm-Pieck
In 1949 the Soviets turned control of East Germany over to the Socialist Unity Party, headed by Wilhelm Pieck (1876–1960), who became president of the GDR and held the office until his death, while most executive authority was assumed by SED General Secretary Walter Ulbricht.
In 1949, he became the first President of the German Democratic Republic, an office abolished upon his death.

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Mecklenburg-Western PomeraniaMecklenburgMecklenburg-West Pomerania
In eastern Germany, the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ – Sowjetische Besatzungszone) comprised the five states (Länder) of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Rostock, Schwerin, and Neubrandenburg.

Group of Soviet Forces in Germany

Soviet sponsoredGroup of Soviet Occupation Forces in GermanyWestern Group of Forces
However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War.
The Western Group of Forces (WGF), previously known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (GSOFG) and the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG), were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.

Heinrich Rau

Heinrich Rau § 1945–1949
In 1948, the German Economic Commission (Deutsche Wirtschaftskomission—DWK) under its chairman Heinrich Rau assumed administrative authority in the Soviet occupation zone, thus becoming the predecessor of an East German government.
Heinrich Gottlob "Heiner" Rau (2 April 1899 – 23 March 1961) was a German communist politician during the time of the Weimar Republic; subsequently, during the Spanish Civil War, he was a leading member of the International Brigades and after World War II an East German statesman.

Inner German border

borderinner-German borderseparated
The government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall.
The Inner German border (Innerdeutsche Grenze or Deutsch-deutsche Grenze ; initially also Zonengrenze ) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990.

Elbe

Elbe RiverRiver ElbeLabe
Before World War II, Ostdeutschland (eastern Germany) was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe (East Elbia), as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt.
The river rolls through Dresden and finally, beyond Meißen, enters on its long journey across the North German Plain passing along the former western border of East Germany, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Dessau, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, and Hamburg on the way, and taking on the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the west, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the east.

National Front of the German Democratic Republic

National FrontNational Front (East Germany)National Front of Democratic Germany
Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The National Front of the German Democratic Republic (Nationale Front der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik) was an alliance of political parties (Blockpartei) and mass organizations in the German Democratic Republic, controlled by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), which stood in elections to the East German parliament, the Volkskammer ("People's Chamber").

The Sixteen Principles of Urban Design

On 16 June 1953, workers constructing the new Stalinallee boulevard in East Berlin, according to The Sixteen Principles of Urban Design, rioted against a 10% production quota increase.
Die Sechzehn Grundsätze des Städtebaus, or The Sixteen Principles of Urban Design, were from 1950 until 1955 the primary model for urban planning in the GDR.

East German uprising of 1953

Uprising of 1953 in East Germany1953East German uprising
(See Uprising of 1953 in East Germany.)
Juni 1953 ) began with a strike action by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June, and turned into a widespread uprising against the communist German Democratic Republic government the next day.

Saxony-Anhalt

AnhaltSachsen-AnhaltSaxony Anhalt
In eastern Germany, the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ – Sowjetische Besatzungszone) comprised the five states (Länder) of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
Saxony-Anhalt became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Halle and Magdeburg, with the city of Torgau joining the district of Leipzig.

Thuringia

ThüringenFree State of ThuringiaThuringen
In eastern Germany, the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ – Sowjetische Besatzungszone) comprised the five states (Länder) of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
Thuringia became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1949, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms, and its territory divided into the districts of Erfurt, Suhl and Gera.

Constitution of East Germany

dictatorshipEast German Constitutionconstitution
Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form, especially since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.