A report on MajapahitEast Java and Javanese people

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Statues of Singhasari temple, circa 1910s
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The Ampel Mosque in Surabaya, the oldest surviving mosque in Java and second oldest in Indonesia, was built in 1421.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Operation Transom, destroyed Tanjung Perak in 1944.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Eastern Salient of Java mountain range view from Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park at early morning
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Light snow and frost is common at East Java highlands over 1500 meters above sea level in middle of year during late night until morning.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Javanese abugida.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Administrative Map of East Java
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Surabaya is one of the industrial, transportational, commercial, and financial center of Indonesia.
Javanese temple.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Surabaya-Gempol Expressway
Traditional Javanese house.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Penataran train in Malang railway station
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Tanjung Perak at night
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
Terminal 1 of Juanda International Airport
A Javanese sailor.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Reog, famous Ponorogoan dance
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Gandrung, iconic Banyuwangi dance
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Islamic Santri students celebrate Santri day in Southern Malang
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Deer in Baluran National Park
Varieties of Javanese keris
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
CLS Knights, most famous professional basketball club in Indonesia.
Weapon of Java: Keris
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Islamic Ampel Mosque, Surabaya (circa 1920s)
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Kayutangan Catholic Church, Downtown Malang (circa 1935)
Javanese weapons and standards
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Traditional East Java Christian Church, Mojowarno, Jombang
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Tengger (Hindu temple) Pura Luhur Ponten, near Bromo Crater
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Buddhist Maha Vihara Mojopahit, Trowulan, Mojokerto
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Kwan Sing Bio Chinese Temple, Tuban
Javanese agricultural tools
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Jawa Timur Park in Batu
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Madakaripura waterfall in Probolinggo
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Ijen crater in Banyuwangi
Javanese masks
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Kedung Tumpang beach in Tulungagung
Javanese temple.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
House of Sampoerna, Surabaya
Asia in the early 14th century
Trowulan ancient city, Mojokerto
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Maulana Malik Ibrahim tomb complex
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
Sempu Island, located in the south of Malang
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

East Java is inhabited by many different ethnic groups, such as the Javanese, Madurese and Chinese.

- East Java

Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th century.

- East Java

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

- Javanese people

The direct administration of Majapahit did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit's claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses.

- Majapahit

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Mount Bromo in East Java


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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

The ethnic groups native to the island are the Javanese in the central and eastern parts and Sundanese in the western parts.

Java is divided into four administrative provinces: Banten, West Java, Central Java, and East Java, and two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.


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Coat of Arms of Soerabaia (old spelling of Surabaya) during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1931.
Dutch residenthuis (resident house) along the water in Surabaya
Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s
Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel guide
The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya on 31 October 1945
Outskirts of Surabaya
Panorama of Central Surabaya in 2019.
Panorama of Western Surabaya from city's outskirts in 2017.
Another view of Tunjungan district
Bungkul Park, one of the most visited parks in Surabaya.
Surabaya Mangrove Edu-Tourism Centre in Wonorejo District, East Surabaya.
Surabaya city hall
Districts of Surabaya.
The metropolitan area in 2014, seen from the International Space Station, the brightest section are Surabaya and its metropolitan areas
Hadhrami immigrants in Surabaya, circa 1920s
Ludruk is a native Surabaya-genre play (theatre).
Downtown Central Surabaya
Central business district in Western Surabaya
Plaza Tunjungan
Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya
Majapahit Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya
Modern architecture of Surabaya Mangrove Edu-Tourism Centre in Wonorejo District, East Surabaya.
Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, waterfront statue of Northern Surabaya
Ujung passenger Port
Pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya
Suramadu bridge at night.
Airlangga University (UNAIR) main entrance.
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS) main library.
Petra Christian High School
Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya.
Ultras choreography of Persebaya.
Church of the Birth of Our Lady, oldest church in Surabaya
An Eastern Orthodox Church congregation
Tian Ti Pagoda, an iconic Buddhist temple
Sanggar Agung, a Chinese folk temple
Pura Jagatnatha Perak, a Hindu temple
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue
Mosque in Surabaya
Handelstraat (Red Bridge) 1930s
Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun, the city's Chinatown
Jembatan Merah (Red Bridge). This bridge was named after the tragedy of The war of Surabaya when groups of nationalists were bombed by the British army causing significant casualties. It was said that due to the amount of blood, the whole bridge appeared red. The fences are always painted red by Surabayan government to commemorate the incident.
Old town Surabaya showing the distinctive old European building from colonial era.
Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat) tomb. One of the sacred pilgrimage site of Wali Sanga
Heroes monument. This monument represent an upside-down nail: if you step on it, it will fight you back.
Research centre
The old building of Surabaya Gubeng railway station. The new modern building has been built on the opposite side of this.
Tunjungan district at night
Suramadu bridge as seen from Madura's side. The skyscrappers are distinctively shown.
Suroboyo Bus
Central Surabaya
West Surabaya
Traditional Surabayan snack, sold in Ampel religious pilgrimage site.
Inner view of Surabaya's oldest church

Surabaya (ꦱꦸꦫꦧꦪ or ; ; ) is the capital city of the Indonesian province of East Java and the second-largest city in Indonesia, after Jakarta.

In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power as well as a port in eastern Java, probably under the Majapahit empire.

Javanese people form the majority in Surabaya while the Madurese are significant minorities.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin

Gajah Mada

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Gajah Mada (c.

Gajah Mada (c.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

Gajah Mada was promptly demoted and spent the rest of his days at the estate of Madakaripura in Probolinggo in East Java.

Expansion of Singhasari during the reign of Kertanegara


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Expansion of Singhasari during the reign of Kertanegara
A mandala of Amoghapāśa from the Singhasari period
The serene beauty of Prajnaparamita statue found near Singhasari temple is believed to be the portrayal statue of Queen Ken Dedes, wife of Ken Arok (the collection of National Museum of Indonesia).
Singhasari temple built as a mortuary temple to honour Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari.
The land of Singhasari when at its peak during 1291
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

Singhasari (Sanskrit: सिंहसरी, ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦱꦶꦔ꧀ꦲꦱꦫꦶ or, Kerajaan Singasari) was a Javanese Hindu kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292.

He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of both the Singhasari and later the Majapahit line of monarchs.

The Gondang Inscription is an in-situ inscription dating back to the era of the Singasari Kingdom which was only discovered in 2017 in the middle of rice fields in Rejoso Hamlet, Gondang Village, Gondang District, Mojokerto Regency, East Java.


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Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Kotagede, former capital of the Mataram Sultanate.
The Yogyakarta sultanate palace's main pavilion
The Taman Sari Water Castle, the former royal garden of the Sultan of Yogyakarta
Administration of Yogyakarta City
Borobudur is the world's largest Buddhist archaeological site.
Wayang (shadow puppets) in Yogyakarta style, a scene from Irawan's Wedding. Mid-20th century, from the University of Hawaii Department of Theatre and Dance.
Kawung Motif in batik from Yogyakarta.
Kotagede silverwork.
Mandala Krida Stadium
Yogyakarta railway station
Trans Jogja Bus. A bus rapid transit system in Yogyakarta.
Main building of Panti Rapih Hospital.

Around the year 929 CE, the last ruler of the Sañjaya dynasty, King Mpu Sindok of Mataram, moved the seat of power of the Mataram Kingdom from Central Java to East Java and thus established the Isyana dynasty.

During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta was identified again as "Mataram" and recognised as one of the twelve Majapahit provinces in Java ruled by a Duke known as Bhre Mataram.

A large majority of the population are Javanese.