A report on Israel and East Jerusalem

2018 United Nations OCHA map of the area, showing Israeli occupation arrangements
East Jerusalem zoning
The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
Map of East Jerusalem. The Arab areas are coloured green, while the Jewish areas are blue.
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Old Roman era gate beneath the Damascus Gate (Bab al-'Amud) in Jerusalem
1961 Jordan Tourism Map of Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount while it was under Jordanian control, 1965
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Aerial view of the ancient Jewish cemetery on Mount of Olives
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
2018 United Nations map of the area, showing the Israeli occupation arrangements.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Israeli West Bank barrier in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
Jerusalem municipal area, under Israel in 2000
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing areas they consider settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, walls, etc.
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
East Jerusalem, with Israeli West Bank barrier in the background
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Dome of the Rock in the Old City
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
UN map showing a series of Israeli "Inner Settlements" – each represented as red crosses – with clusters in the Old City, to the south adjacent to the City of David (shown as "Beit Hazofe" (בית הצופה, "Observation House")) and Ma'ale HaZeitim, and to the north around Shimon HaTzadik.
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The new building is Schmidt's Girls College.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

East Jerusalem (القدس الشرقية, al-Quds ash-Sharqiya; מִזְרַח יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, Mizraḥ Yerushalayim) is the sector of Jerusalem that was held by Jordan during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, which was held by Israel.

- East Jerusalem

Israel has effectively annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, though these actions have been rejected as illegal by the international community, and established settlements within the occupied territories, which are also considered illegal under international law.

- Israel

28 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Jerusalem municipal area

Status of Jerusalem

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Disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem as their capital city.

Disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem as their capital city.

Jerusalem municipal area
Israel's parliament
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing refugee camps, fences, walls, and what at the time they regarded as settlements.

The main dispute revolves around the legal status of East Jerusalem and especially the Old City of Jerusalem, while broader agreement exists regarding future Israeli presence in West Jerusalem in accordance with Israel's internationally recognised borders.

Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House in 1993

Oslo Accords

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Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House in 1993
Area C, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011

The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba, Egypt, in 1995.

While Peres had limited settlement construction at the request of US Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, Netanyahu continued construction within existing Israeli settlements, and put forward plans for the construction of a new neighborhood, Har Homa, in East Jerusalem.

Central Israel and Area C (blue), the part of the West Bank under full Israeli control, 2011
(For a more up-to-date, interactive map, see here).

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

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One of the world's most enduring conflicts, beginning in the mid-20th century.

One of the world's most enduring conflicts, beginning in the mid-20th century.

Central Israel and Area C (blue), the part of the West Bank under full Israeli control, 2011
(For a more up-to-date, interactive map, see here).
The Palestinian Arab Christian-owned Falastin newspaper featuring a caricature on its 18 June 1936 edition showing Zionism as a crocodile under the protection of a British officer telling Palestinian Arabs: "don't be afraid!!! I will swallow you peacefully...".
The Arab revolt of 1936–1939 in Palestine, motivated by opposition to mass Jewish immigration.
Land in the lighter shade represents territory within the borders of Israel at the conclusion of the 1948 war. This land is internationally recognized as belonging to Israel.
A peace movement poster: Israeli and Palestinian flags and the words peace in Arabic and Hebrew.
Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993.
Israeli settlers in Hebron, West Bank
A fatally wounded Israeli school boy, 2011
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing what the CIA regards as settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, and walls
Palestinian refugees, 1948
Home in Balata refugee camp demolished during the second Intifada, 2002
Remains of an Egged bus hit by suicide bomber in the aftermath of the 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks. Eight people were killed, about 40 were injured.
An Israeli child wounded by a Hamas Grad rocket fired on the city of Beer Sheva is taken to a hospital
Area C, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Protest against land confiscation held at Bil'in, 2011
A neighbourhood in Ariel, home to the Ariel University
Israel's attack on Gaza in 2009
The barrier between Israel and Palestine and an example of one of the Israeli-controlled checkpoints
Bank of Palestine
Bar chart showing Israeli and Palestinian deaths from September 2000 to July 2014

Occupied Palestinian Territory is the term used by the United Nations to refer to the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip—territories which were captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War, having formerly been controlled by Egypt and Jordan.

When Israel became a state after the war in 1948, 77% of Palestine's land was used for the creation on the state.

Jordanian annexation of the West Bank

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Independent Arab state to be established there alongside a Jewish state mainly to its west.

Independent Arab state to be established there alongside a Jewish state mainly to its west.

Contemporary map, 1955
Arab Legionnaires attacking Porat Yosef Yeshiva, Old City of Jerusalem, 1948
Contemporary map, 1955
King Abdullah at Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 29 May 1948
Arab Legion soldier posing in the ruins of the Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem
1947 UN Partition Plan and 1949 UN Armistice Lines

Prior to hostilities in 1948, Palestine (modern-day West Bank, Gaza Strip and Israel) had been under the Mandate for Palestine control of the British Empire, which captured it from the Ottomans in 1917.

Jordanian forces remained in most positions they held in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem and the Old City.

Map illustrating Jewish proposals for partition of Jerusalem, presented to the 1938 Woodhead Commission.

Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)

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The internationalization proposal for Jerusalem and its surrounding area as part of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.

The internationalization proposal for Jerusalem and its surrounding area as part of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.

Map illustrating Jewish proposals for partition of Jerusalem, presented to the 1938 Woodhead Commission.
Settlement patterns in same area in 2006. Purple indicates Jewish concentrations and orange indicates Palestinian Arab concentrations.

The corpus separatum was one of the main issues of the Lausanne Conference of 1949, besides the borders of Israel and the question of the Palestinian right of return.

The Partition Plan was not implemented, being firstly rejected by Palestinian and other Arab leaders and then overtaken by the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, which left Jerusalem split between Israel (West Jerusalem) and Jordan (East Jerusalem).

Emblem of the Israel Defense Forces

Israel Defense Forces

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Emblem of the Israel Defense Forces
Major-Gen. Ariel Sharon (left), during the Battle of Abu-Ageila, June 1967
Operation Gazelle, Israel's ground maneuver, encircles the Egyptian Third Army, October 1973
IDF Kirya Compound, Tel Aviv
Structure of the Israel Defense Forces (click to enlarge)
Israeli officers of the Paratrooper Battalion 890 in 1955 with Moshe Dayan (standing, third from the left). Ariel Sharon is standing, second from the left and commando Meir Har Zion is standing furthest left.
Soldiers of the Golani Brigade on the Golan Heights
Soldiers of the "Yanshuf" (Owl) Battalion, which specializes in CBRN warfare
IDF Alpinist Unit dispatched to Mount Hermon
Israeli soldiers coming back from the Second Lebanon war, armed with the M4 Carbine and the IMI Negev light machinegun
Israeli soldiers during Operation Brothers' Keeper (2014) armed with IWI X95s.
IDF uniform colors
Female IDF corporal with the Spike missile launcher, wearing the golden-olive Madei Alef uniform
IDF female Military Police wearing skirts with their White caps and belts.
Nahal Brigade soldier with full combat gear.
163rd IAF Flight Course Graduates (2011)
IAF Flight academy graduates receive their ranks as air force officers
IDF Recruits trying on uniforms for the first time
IDF Nahal Brigade soldiers on their regular service
IDF Reservists train in the Golan Heights
The Israel Border Police (Magav) is responsible for security in urban or rural areas
The unisex Caracal Battalion, which serves in routine security missions
IDF shooting instructors, a common role for women in the IDF
IDF Warrant Officers with the M16 and IWI X95; two common assault rifles of the IDF.
Druze commander of the IDF Herev battalion
Bedouin soldiers in 1949
Israeli Arab soldiers, serving in the Galilee in 1978
Bedouin Desert Reconnaissance Battalion, visiting an Arab school
An Ethiopian-Jewish soldier
IDF soldiers of the religious 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion
Israeli "Netzah Yehuda" recon company in full combat gear prepare for a night raid in the West Bank
IDF snipers in IDF international sniping contest, 2019
IDF soldier, Asael lubotzky prays with tefillin.
A female soldier of the IDF Search and Rescue Unit.
Israeli soldiers during the Battle of Nablus
The Engineering Corps's Atomic-Biological-Chemical Unit
Nahal Brigade soldiers pay respect to fallen comrades at Mt. Herzl's Military Cemetery
Two IDF Medical Doctors in a training exercise
IDF soldiers treat an injured Palestinian man
IDF soldiers rescued an eighty-year-old Lebanese woman, after she got tangled in the security fence on the northern border, on the Lebanese side
Israeli Air Force F-16I and F-35I
Merkava ('Chariot')– Israeli main battle tank, with 4 generations
Israeli Navy Sa'ar 5-class corvette INS Lahav
IDF's current (2017) armored fighting vehicles, clockwise: IDF Namer, IDF Caterpillar D9, M270 MLRS and Merkava Mk 4M
An IDF ceremony for Yom Hazikaron
Israeli female soldiers on parade, Jerusalem, 1968
Former IDF Chief of Staff Benny Gantz (right) meets with Martin Dempsey (left), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Israeli soldiers training alongside the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit on the USS Kearsarge
A German-made Dolphin class submarine
Sailors of the Israeli Navy
Two IAF Apache AH-64D Longbows and one Greek AH-64A fly above the Greek countryside during a joint exercise, June 2011
Two IDF commando operators in a joint training in Greece, November 2019
IDF infantry with the IWI X95 "Micro-Tavor"
A profile of a Merkava Mk 4M tank, armed with an IMI 120 mm gun, a M2 Browning .50-cal, a 7.62x51 mm NATO commander's FN MAG, and equipped with the Trophy active protection system.
Israeli Air Force F-35I Adir.
M4A1 carbine
Tavor X95 flattop 380
IWI Negev LMG
M24 Sniper Weapon System (2018)
M2HQCB 0.5
Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boat
Hermes 900 UAV
Soldier armed with the IWI Tavor assault rifle
Spike ATGM
Arrow anti-ballistic missile
Wolf Armoured Vehicle
Israel Aerospace Industries EL/W-2085, a development of the EL/M-2075
"Saraph" AH-64D Apache Longbow
IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer
Iron Dome anti-rocket system launcher
Typhoon Weapon Station armed with 25 mm gun
The Python missile series.
IAI Harop.
The LITENING targeting pod, which is today used by more than 20 international air-forces.<ref>ISRAELI TARGETING POD LEADING BOMBINGS IN LIBYA BY YAAKOV KATZ Jerusalem Post, 1 May 2011</ref>
David's Sling Weapons System Stunner Missile
Merkava Mk 4m with Trophy active protection system, the first operationally tested Active Protection System for tanks.
M2 Browning on Catlanit RCWS
Israeli Air Force F-35I Adir.
Israeli Air Force F-16I and F-35I

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, ), alternatively referred to by the Hebrew-language acronym (צה״ל), is the national military of the State of Israel.

In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel conquered the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and Golan Heights from the surrounding Arab states, changing the balance of power in the region as well as the role of the IDF.

Map showing the status of Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories

Israeli-occupied territories

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Map showing the status of Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories
Map of the Golan Heights since 1974
Area C (blue), the part of the West Bank under full Israeli control, in 2011
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. The CIA remote sensing map showing East Jerusalem, the Green Line and Jerusalem's city limits which were unilaterally expanded by Israel, 28 June 1967, annexed by Knesset (30 July 1980), and modified and expanded in February 1992.
The settlement Elon Moreh, 2008
A military checkpoint along the route of the forthcoming West Bank Barrier, near Abu Dis
Map showing an interpretation of the borders of the Land of Israel, based on scriptural verses found in and, includes almost all of the occupied territories.
President Donald Trump signs the proclamation recognizing Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights, 25 March 2019

Israeli-occupied territories are the lands that were captured and occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.

Despite the dissolution of the military government, and in line with Egyptian demands, the term Occupied Arab Territories had remained in use, referring to the West Bank (including East Jerusalem, which Israel effectively annexed in 1980), the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights.

Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat shake hands at the White House in Washington.

2000 Camp David Summit

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Summit meeting at Camp David between United States president Bill Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat.

Summit meeting at Camp David between United States president Bill Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat.

Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat shake hands at the White House in Washington.

There was a hopeful precedent in the 1978 Camp David Accords where President Jimmy Carter was able to broker a peace agreement between Egypt, represented by President Anwar Sadat, and Israel represented by Prime Minister Menachem Begin.

The Palestinian and Israeli definition of the West Bank differs by approximately 5% land area as the Israeli definition does not include East Jerusalem (71 km2), the territorial waters of the Dead Sea (195 km2) and the area known as No Man's Land (50 km2 near Latrun).

1955 United Nations map showing the Armistice Agreements, with original map reference points ("MR") on the Palestine grid referenced in the respective agreements.

1949 Armistice Agreements

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1955 United Nations map showing the Armistice Agreements, with original map reference points ("MR") on the Palestine grid referenced in the respective agreements.
Palestine Military Situation, April 6, 1949. Truman Papers
The Israeli delegation to the 1949 Armistice Agreements talks. Left to right: Commanders Yehoshafat Harkabi, Aryeh Simon, Yigael Yadin, and Yitzhak Rabin (1949)

The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line.

Jordanian forces remained in most positions held by them, particularly East Jerusalem which included the Old City.

Abbas in 2021

Mahmoud Abbas

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President of the State of Palestine and the Palestinian National Authority.

President of the State of Palestine and the Palestinian National Authority.

Abbas in 2021
Abbas with President of the United States George W. Bush and Prime Minister of Israel Ariel Sharon at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003
Abbas with Ariel Sharon and George W. Bush in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003
Abbas with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, 18 January 2011
Abbas with U.S. President Donald Trump in Washington, D.C., 3 May 2017
Abbas with President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden in the Oval Office
Abbas meets with then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.
Abbas meets with then US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
Abbas, Vladimir Putin, and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan opened Moscow's Cathedral Mosque, 23 September 2015.

Mahmoud Abbas was born on 15 November 1935 in Safed, in the Galilee region of Mandatory Palestine (now Israel).

On 15 January 2006, Abbas declared that, despite unrest in Gaza, he would not change the election date, unless Israel were to prevent Palestinians in East Jerusalem from voting.