A report on Israel and East Jerusalem

2018 United Nations OCHA map of the area, showing Israeli occupation arrangements
East Jerusalem zoning
The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
Map of East Jerusalem. The Arab areas are coloured green, while the Jewish areas are blue.
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Old Roman era gate beneath the Damascus Gate (Bab al-'Amud) in Jerusalem
1961 Jordan Tourism Map of Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount while it was under Jordanian control, 1965
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Aerial view of the ancient Jewish cemetery on Mount of Olives
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
2018 United Nations map of the area, showing the Israeli occupation arrangements.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Israeli West Bank barrier in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
Jerusalem municipal area, under Israel in 2000
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing areas they consider settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, walls, etc.
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
East Jerusalem, with Israeli West Bank barrier in the background
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Dome of the Rock in the Old City
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
UN map showing a series of Israeli "Inner Settlements" – each represented as red crosses – with clusters in the Old City, to the south adjacent to the City of David (shown as "Beit Hazofe" (בית הצופה, "Observation House")) and Ma'ale HaZeitim, and to the north around Shimon HaTzadik.
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The new building is Schmidt's Girls College.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

East Jerusalem (القدس الشرقية, al-Quds ash-Sharqiya; מִזְרַח יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, Mizraḥ Yerushalayim) is the sector of Jerusalem that was held by Jordan during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, which was held by Israel.

- East Jerusalem

Israel has effectively annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, though these actions have been rejected as illegal by the international community, and established settlements within the occupied territories, which are also considered illegal under international law.

- Israel

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Overall

Ben-Gurion in 1960

David Ben-Gurion

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Ben-Gurion in 1960
Poalei Zion's "Ezra" group in Plonsk, 1905. David Grün (David Ben-Gurion) in the first row, third on the right.
Ben Gurion with Rachel Nelkin and members of Ezra on eve of their departure to Palestine, August 1906; His father and step-mother sitting in the windows
Ben Gurion working at Rishon Lezion winery (front row, 6th from right), 1908.
Ben-Gurion in his Jewish Legion uniform, 1918
David and Paula Ben-Gurion, 1 June 1918.
The Histadrut committee in 1920. Ben Gurion is in the 2nd row, 4th from the right.
From left: David Ben-Gurion and Paula with youngest daughter Renana on BG's lap, daughter Geula, father Avigdor Grün and son Amos, 1929
David Ben-Gurion with Yigal Allon and Yitzhak Rabin in the Negev, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
David Ben-Gurion visits 101 Squadron, the "First Fighter Squadron".
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming independence beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman in the Oval Office, receiving a Menorah as a gift from the Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion (center). To the right is Abba Eban, the Ambassador of Israel to the United States.
David Ben-Gurion speaking at the Knesset, 1957
Kennedy and Ben-Gurion in 1961.
Ben-Gurion on the cover of Time (16 August 1948)
thumb|Graves of Paula and David Ben-Gurion, Midreshet Ben-Gurion
thumb|Sculpture of David Ben-Gurion at Ben Gurion Airport, named in his honor
thumb|Esplanade Ben Gourion, Paris, near the Seine, in front of the Musée du Quai Branly
thumb|David Ben-Gurion Square—site of the house where Ben-Gurion was born, Płońsk, Wspólna Street.
thumb|House at town square in Płońsk, Poland, where David Ben-Gurion grew up
thumb|English Heritage blue plaque where Ben-Gurion lived in London
Portrait of Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן ; born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

Israel then captured the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria in a series of campaigns.

Aerial view of the compound, with selected terminology shown

Temple Mount

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The Temple Mount, also known as al-Ḥaram al-Sharīf (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, lit. 'The Noble Sanctuary'), al-Aqsa Mosque compound, or simply al-Aqsa Mosque (المسجد الأقصى, al-Masjid al-Aqṣā, lit. 'The Furthest Mosque'),<ref name=":22">

The Temple Mount, also known as al-Ḥaram al-Sharīf (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, lit. 'The Noble Sanctuary'), al-Aqsa Mosque compound, or simply al-Aqsa Mosque (المسجد الأقصى, al-Masjid al-Aqṣā, lit. 'The Furthest Mosque'),<ref name=":22">

Aerial view of the compound, with selected terminology shown
Topographical map of Jerusalem, showing the Temple Mount on the eastern peak
The Holyland Model of Jerusalem, an imagined reconstruction of the city in the late Second Temple period, showing the large flat expanse on the Temple Mount as a base for Herod's Temple, in the center. View from the east.
Wall of the Temple Mount (southeast corner)
Picture showing what is presumed to be the Foundation Stone, or a large part of it
c. undefined300,000 Muslims praying at Ramadan, 1996
Façade of Al-Aqsa Mosque's main praying hall, viewed from the north.
Interior decoration of the Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock as an Islamic shrine, as seen from the north
A depiction of Muhammad's ascent to heaven by Sultan Mohammed
Al-Aqsa Mosque in 2019
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43x1 m) with Hebrew inscription לבית התקיעה להב "To the Trumpeting Place" excavated by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.
Stone piles (along the western wall, near the southern end) from the walls of the Temple Mount
Southwest qanatir (arches) of the Haram al Sharif, Qubat al-Nahawiyya is also partially visible to the right.
A model of the Haram-al-Sharif made in 1879 by Conrad Schick. The model can be seen in the Bijbels Museum in Amsterdam
King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount while it was under Jordanian control, 1965
Sign in Hebrew and English outside the Temple Mount stating the Chief Rabbinate's preference that no person should enter the site, since it is the holiest site in Judaism
The al-Kas ablution fountain for Muslim worshippers on the southern portion of the lower platform
The eastern set of Hulda gates
Robinson's Arch, situated on the southwestern flank, once supported a staircase that led to the Mount.
Southern Wall of Temple Mount, southwestern corner
Israeli paratroopers entering the Temple Mount through the Lions Gate in 1967
Extract of an 1841 British map showing both "Mesjid el-Aksa" and "Jami el-Aksa"
The Immer Bulla (7th–6th century BCE), written in the Paleo-Hebrew script, was discovered during the Temple Mount Sifting Project. It bears the name Immer, recorded in the Bible as the name of a major office holder in Solomon's Temple
Remains of a wall in the northwest part of the elevated platform. Ritmeyer suggested that it is the top of a remaining stone course of the western wall of the Iron Age compound
Roman centaur relief (135-325 CE) reused as a floor panel in al-Aqsa Mosque, found during restoration work in the 1930s
Baldwin II of Jerusalem, assigning the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque to Hugues de Payens and Godfrey.
Temple Mount, photographed by Francis Bedford, 1862
A security gate guarding the entrance to the site.
Haredi Jews visiting the Temple Mount during Passover
Gabriel Barkay presents Moshe Ya'alon with the reconstructions of the opus sectile floors of the Herodian period plaza

Al Jazeera: "Israeli Deputy Minister Tzipi Hotovely referred to the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound as 'the centre of Israeli sovereignty, the capital of Israel'... In response, Netanyahu's office later that night put out a statement saying that 'non-Muslims visit the Temple Mount [Al-Aqsa compound]' but are not permitted to pray there. and sometimes as Jerusalem's sacred (or holy) esplanade, is a hill in the Old City of Jerusalem that has been venerated as a holy site in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam for thousands of years. Since the Crusades launched by the Latin Church (11th–13th century), the Muslim community of Jerusalem has managed the site through the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf. The site, along with the whole of East Jerusalem (which includes the Old City), was controlled by Jordan from 1948 until 1967, and has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967. Shortly after capturing the site, Israel handed its administration back to the Waqf under the Jordanian Hashemite custodianship, while maintaining Israeli security control. The Israeli government enforces a ban on prayer by non-Muslims as part of an arrangement usually referred to as the "status quo." The site remains a major focal point of the Arab–Israeli conflict.

The site remains within the area controlled by the State of Israel, with administration of the site remaining in the hands of the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf.

Netanyahu in 2019

Benjamin Netanyahu

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Israeli politician who served as the ninth prime minister of Israel from 1996 to 1999 and from 2009 to 2021.

Israeli politician who served as the ninth prime minister of Israel from 1996 to 1999 and from 2009 to 2021.

Netanyahu in 2019
Netanyahu studied at MIT between 1972 and 1976, earning SB and SM degrees.
Netanyahu (right) with Sorin Hershko, a soldier wounded and permanently paralyzed in Operation Entebbe, 2 July 1986
Netanyahu's first meeting with Palestinian President Yasser Arafat at the Erez crossing, 4 September 1996
Netanyahu sitting with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and Palestinian President Yasser Arafat at the Wye River Memorandum, 1998
Prime Minister Netanyahu, with his son, at the Western Wall in 1998.
Netanyahu in a meeting with President Dmitry Medvedev in Russia, 24 March 2011
Netanyahu with Yohanan Danino, appointed Israel's Chief of Police in 2011
Netanyahu, Hillary Clinton, George J. Mitchell and Mahmoud Abbas at the start of the direct talks, 2 September 2010
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Netanyahu, Jerusalem, 23 July 2014
Netanyahu and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.
Netanyahu, Joseph Dunford and Jewish veterans of the Red Army, Victory Day in Jerusalem, 9 May 2017
Netanyahu meets with President Donald Trump in Jerusalem, May 2017
Netanyahu meets with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, 24 January 2018
President Trump, joined by Netanyahu behind, signs the proclamation recognizing Israel's 1981 annexation of the Golan Heights, March 2019
Israelis protest against Netanyahu outside his official residence in Jerusalem on 30 July 2020
Netanyahu's motorcade departs the Prime Minister's residence on the early morning of July 11, 2021, a month after his ouster as Prime Minister.
Netanyahu at a memorial service of Ethiopian Israeli immigrants, in honor of their friends who died on their way to Israel.
One of Netanyahu's campaign posters during the 2009 Israeli legislative elections reading "Strong in security. Strong in economy."
White House Abraham Accords signing ceremony on 15 September 2020
Netanyahu publicly supported the Trump peace plan for the creation of the State of Palestine.
Standing with Israeli Minister of Defense Ehud Barak, Netanyahu holds an Iranian instruction manual for the anti-ship missile captured in Victoria Affair, March 2011
Protest against U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel, Tehran, 11 December 2017
Israelis in Ashkelon run for shelter following a missile alert during Operation Protective Edge
Benjamin Netanyahu at the grave of his brother Yoni Netanyahu, who was killed leading a counter-terrorist operation in 1976
Netanyahu lighting Hanukkah candles on the first night in the Prime Minister's office in Jerusalem with his wife, Sara and their sons, Yair and Avner, 1996
Netanyahu and Barack Obama
Netanyahu and Donald Trump during the signing of the Abraham Accords on 15 September 2020
Netanyahu with Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro in Jerusalem, 31 March 2019

Netanyahu was reported to be in a pivotal moment over these understandings, that were reported to include a compromise over permission on continuing the already approved construction in the West Bank in exchange for freezing all settlements thereafter, as well as continuing building in East Jerusalem, and at the same time stopping the demolition of houses of Arab inhabitants there.

His mother was born in 1912 in Petah Tikva, then in Ottoman Palestine, now Israel.

The barrier route as of July 2011: 438 km finished, 58 km under construction, 212 km planned.

Israeli West Bank barrier

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The barrier route as of July 2011: 438 km finished, 58 km under construction, 212 km planned.
The barrier in Jerusalem, 2007
The barrier between Abu Dis and East Jerusalem, June 2004
Graffiti on the road to Bethlehem in the West Bank stating "Ich bin ein Berliner"
Route 443 near Giv'at Ze'ev Junction, with pyramid-shaped stacks of barbed wire forming a section of the Israeli West Bank barrier
Israeli West Bank barrier – North of Meitar, near the southwest corner of the West Bank, in 2006.
The barrier between northern West Bank and the Gilboa
Inside the West Bank on the West Bank barrier
West Bank Barrier, Palestinian side
Israeli West Bank barrier near Mount Zion in 2009
Palestinian children running towards the barrier, August 2004
Replica section of the Israeli Barrier, built in London in 2013, as part of the international protest against the Israeli wall
Graffiti depicting U.S. President Donald Trump and Mark Zuckerberg on the Israeli barrier in Bethlehem, July 2018
Graffiti paintings on the wall by British graffiti artist Banksy
Section of West Bank barrier located on Route 443, near Jerusalem. Painting was likely done by the official contractor.

The Israeli West Bank barrier, comprising the West Bank Wall and the West Bank fence, is a separation barrier built by Israel along the Green Line and inside parts of the West Bank.

The barrier runs partly along or near the 1949 Jordanian–Israeli armistice line ("Green Line") and partly through the Israeli-occupied West Bank diverging eastward from the armistice line by up to 20 km to include on the western side several of the areas with concentrations of highly populated Israeli settlements, such as East Jerusalem, the Ariel Bloc (Ariel, Karnei Shomron, Kedumim, Immanuel etc.), Gush Etzion, Givat Ze'ev, Oranit, and Maale Adumim.

Map of territories occupied by Israel

United Nations Security Council Resolution 242

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Adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967, in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.

Adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967, in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.

Map of territories occupied by Israel

Egypt, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon entered into consultations with the UN Special representative over the implementation of 242.

The PNC called only for withdrawal from Arab Jerusalem and "Arab territories occupied."

International law and Israeli settlements

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The international community considers the establishment of Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories illegal on one of two bases: that they are in violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, or that they are in breach of international declarations.

The international community considers the establishment of Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories illegal on one of two bases: that they are in violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, or that they are in breach of international declarations.

Numerous UN resolutions and prevailing international opinion hold that Israeli settlements in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights are a violation of international law, including UN Security Council resolutions in 1979, 1980, and 2016.

Israel has consistently argued that the settlements are not in violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention since, in its view, Israeli citizens were neither deported nor transferred to the territories, and they cannot be considered to have become "occupied territory" since there had been no internationally recognized legal sovereign prior.

The Middle East.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 478

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The Middle East.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, adopted on 20 August 1980, is one of two General Assembly resolutions followed by seven UNSC resolutions condemning Israel's attempted annexation of East Jerusalem.

Israeli citizenship law

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A British mandate-era passport for a Palestinian resident
A welcoming for new immigrants from North America

Israeli citizenship law details the conditions by which a person holds citizenship of Israel.

Persons opting to naturalize are typically individuals who migrate to Israel for employment or family reasons, or are permanent residents of East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights.