East Malaysia

East Malaysia comprises the states of Sabah and Sarawak, as well as the Federal territory of Labuan.
Political map of the island of Borneo, with East Malaysia shown in orange
A topographic map of Borneo with East Malaysia located on the northern portion of the island

Part of Malaysia on and near the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.

- East Malaysia

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Kota Kinabalu

State capital of Sabah, Malaysia.

"Kina Balu from Pinokok Valley" – lithograph published in 1862.
Sir Charles Jessel, vice-chairman of the BNBC, after which Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu) was named.
Jesselton, c. 1911.
The North Borneo War Monument was erected in Jesselton in 1923 to remember those fallen British soldiers during the World War I.
Bomb damage at the town of Jesselton during World War II, this was part of the Borneo Campaign by Allied forces during 1945.
Disarmed Japanese troops marching towards a prisoner of war (POW) compound in Jesselton after surrendering to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 8 October 1945.
Children in Jesselton filmed by Australian government representative a year after the war in 1946.
Kota Kinabalu City Hall.
A rough map of Kota Kinabalu city and urban area. Blue lines indicate main roads, grey lines indicate railway lines, and pink dotted lines indicate district boundaries.
View over the southern city central business district.
View of Kota Kinabalu captured from the International Space Station in 2002.
View of Greater Kota Kinabalu with skyscrapers dotting the city above lush green treetops.
The city as seen from the air in 2015.
Sacred Heart Cathedral.
City Mosque.
The Sabah State Mosque, another place of worship sights in the city.
Pu Tuo Si Temple.
An oil terminal at Sepanggar Bay operated by Petronas.
A highway in Kota Kinabalu
The North Bus Terminal in Inanam serves long-distance buses bound for the north and east of Sabah.
Interior of a train in Tanjung Aru station.
A ferry from Labuan at Kota Kinabalu Ferry Terminal.
Entrance to the Jesselton Point waterfront.
Sabah Police Headquarters.
Queen Elizabeth Hospital.
Kota Kinabalu Polytechnic.
UMS Chancellory Building.
Sabah State Library headquarters in the state.
Sabah State Museum, the main museum of Sabah.
Atkinson Clock Tower, one of the historical landmarks in the city.
The panorama of Sabah Golf & Country Club.
Sunset at Tanjung Aru beach. Sulug Island can be seen on the left and Manukan Island on the right of the horizon.
Manukan Island boat ride from Kota Kinabalu.
The boardwalk in Kota Kinabalu at dusk.
The Jesselton Freemason Hall on top of a hill in the city.
Suria Sabah during the 2013 Chinese New Year celebrations, this is also one of the shopping malls in the city.
Golden Screen Cinemas which is located at Suria Sabah Shopping Mall.
An aerial view of Likas Sport Complex with Likas Stadium, which is the home stadium for Sabah F.C.

Kota Kinabalu is also one of the major industrial and commercial centres of East Malaysia.


Capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia.

Kuching was later established as the seat of Brooke government under the management of James Brooke.
The Kuching state prison was situated beside the Square Tower building in 1896.
Children are pulled through the city's streets by a coolie, c. 1919.
A street scene of Kuching town shortly after the surrender of Japan, image taken on 12 September 1945.
A piece of Japanese propaganda in Jawi script found in the town after the capturing of the town by the Australian forces.
Panorama of Kuching City.
Kuching as the commercial centre of Sarawak.
The city highway.
New asphalt road connecting the rural areas with the city.
The main taxis in the city are painted in red and yellow.
A traditional roofed wooden sampan, the main water transport in Kuching.
Kuching International Airport at night.
The Sarawak General Hospital.
The Sarawak State Library.
The Sarawak State Museum building was built by Rajah Charles Brooke in 1891 and designed based on the architecture of a Normandy town hall.
The Astana, one of the historical landmarks in the city.
Darul Hana Bridge at night
New Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Building.
Former Madrasah Melayu Kuching (which is now as Islamic Heritage Museum).
A puppet show in Kuching, c. 1919.
Kuching Mosque at dusk
Hong San Si Temple
St. Joseph Cathedral

The city has become one of the major industrial and commercial centres in East Malaysia.


Entrance to the Madai Cave.
Left: The first concession treaty was signed by Sultan Abdul Momin of Brunei on 29 December 1877.
Right: The second concession treaty was signed by Sultan Jamal ul-Azam of Sulu on 22 January 1878.
Japanese civilians and soldiers prior to their embarkation to Jesselton after their surrender to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in Tawau on 21 October 1945.
Donald Stephens (left) declaring the forming of the Federation of Malaysia at Merdeka Square, Jesselton on 16 September 1963. Together with him was the then Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia Tun Abdul Razak (right) and Mustapha Harun (second right).
The State Administrative Building (right), behind the Wisma Innoprise (left).
The Sabah State Legislative Assembly Building in Kota Kinabalu.
A Malaysian Army soldier armed with Colt M4 standing guard in Sabah east coast as part of the Eastern Sabah Security Command (ESSCOM).
Map of the British North Borneo with the yellow area covered the Philippine claim to eastern Sabah, presented by the Philippine Government to ICJ on 25 June 2001.
Sabah is located south of the typhoon belt, making it insusceptible to the devastating effects of the typhoons which frequently batter the neighbouring Philippines, such as the Typhoon Haiyan in 2013.
Sunset over the shorelines of Sabah
Blue-eared kingfisher in the lower Kinabatangan River area, which is endemic to the island of Borneo. Kingfisher is also once a state bird of Sabah and featured in one of its coat of arms.
A walkout through the Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre.
A lorry carrying timber in Tawau. Logging has contributed over 50% of the state revenue.
Aerial view of Mamut Mine with water that has filled the mine. Its water is reported to be dangerous for consumption due to the high presence of heavy metals.
Container ship passing through the Likas Bay in the South China Sea.
Paddy field in Tambunan District.
Fishery activities in the harbour of Sandakan.
High voltage electricity pylon located near the Kimanis Power Plant.
Babagon Dam, the biggest water catchment in the state.
Telecommunication towers atop Mount Silam facing Darvel Bay of Lahad Datu.
The advertisement of Peninsular-based radio stations: Era FM, My FM and Hitz FM in a building, showing the radios had set up their offices in the capital city of Sabah.
The building of Sabah Broadcasting Complex in Donggongon.
Eight-lane highway in the capital city of Kota Kinabalu, part of the Pan-Borneo Highway.
Sabah State Railway train passing through a tunnel of the Western Line in Pengalat Besar, Papar District.
Boats and ferries at the Kota Kinabalu marina.
Kota Kinabalu International Airport (Terminal 1).
Gleneagles Kota Kinabalu, one of the main private hospitals in Sabah.
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) chancellory building.
Sabahan secondary school students in their uniform.
The branch building of National Department for Culture and Arts in Kota Kinabalu.
The Sumazau dance performance of Papar Kadazan at the Monsopiad Cultural Village.
The roundabout in Tambunan with the sculpture of Sompoton, the main musical instrument of Sabah.
A swordfish hinava served with sandwich bread
Extract from the title page of the British North Borneo Official Gazette (the British North Borneo Herald) of 16 April 1902.
Three Came Home, a 1950 Hollywood film based on the memoir of Agnes Newton Keith life in Sandakan, North Borneo (present-day Sabah) during World War II.
The Borneo Bug Fest in 2016, featuring Volkswagen Beetle.
The Borneo International Marathon in 2015.
Likas Stadium which is the home stadium for Sabah FA.
Subsidiary peak of Mount Kinabalu
Smile Islands of Manukan, Mamutik and Sulug
Lahad Datu District sea panoramic view
Padas River Valley
The northern tip of Borneo at Tanjung Simpang Mengayau facing both the South China Sea and Sulu Sea.
Crocker Range, the main mountain ranges in Sabah, part of the Crocker Range National Park.
alt=The wooden frame of a house under construction, with the floor raised off the ground|A traditional house under construction
Bajau house
Bisaya house
Brunei Malay house
Dusun longhouse
Illanun house
Lotud house

Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo, in the region of East Malaysia.


Country in Southeast Asia.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya

The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia.


Federal Territory of Malaysia.

Japanese Navy anchoring at the coast of Labuan on 14 January 1942
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six
Japanese Commander in Borneo, Lieutenant General Masao Baba signing the surrender document dated 9 September 1945 on the Australian 9th Division headquarters in Labuan while being watched by the Australian Major General George Wootten
A map of Labuan island including the outlying islands.
An-Nur State Mosque, 2021
Kwang Fook Kong Temple
Labuan Port
Labuan Financial Park complex
Chimney at the Colliery Fields
1885 2c stamp
Stamp of North Borneo overprinted "Labuan", 1897
The signing of the Treaty of Labuan between the Brunei sultanate and the British delegation on 18 December 1846 at the Brunei palace
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island on 24 December 1846
An 1888 British Map of Labuan
Labuan War Cemetery
Replica Clock Tower of 1906{{refn|Labuan Malaysia Clock-Tower-08.jpg|group=note}}
Labuan Museum

Its territory includes and six smaller islands, off the coast of the state of Sabah in East Malaysia.

Independence Day (Malaysia)

Official independence day of Malaysia.

Children waving the Malaysian flag on Merdeka Day

Some, especially people from East Malaysia, argue that it is illogical to celebrate 31 August 1957 as Malaysia's national day when Malaysia was only established in 1963.

High court (Malaysia)

The high courts in Malaysia are the third-highest courts in the hierarchy of courts, after the Federal Court and the Court of Appeal.

Johor Bahru High Court

Similarly, all courts found in East Malaysia are under the jurisdiction of the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak including the courts in the Federal Territory of Labuan.


Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

States and federal territories of Malaysia

The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.

Malaysia and its states' flags at Putra Square, Putrajaya
The building hosting the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly

2 states are on the island of Borneo, and the remaining federal territory consists of islands offshore of Borneo; they are collectively referred to as East Malaysia or Malaysian Borneo.


Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island.