Eastern Arabia

BahraynBahrainal-BahraynBahrain (historical region)easternProvince of Bahrainal-Bahraineastern sidehistorical region of BahrainAhsa
Eastern Arabia was historically known as Al-Bahrain until the 18th century.wikipedia
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Kuwait

State of KuwaitKuwaitiKWT
This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Southern Iraq, and Northern Oman.
Situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, it shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

Bahrain

Kingdom of BahrainBahreinBHR
This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Southern Iraq, and Northern Oman.
Until the late Middle Ages, "Bahrain" referred to the region of Eastern Arabia that included Southern Iraq, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, and Bahrain.

Al Hajar Mountains

Hajar MountainsWestern Hajar Mountainsmountains
Until very recently, the whole of Eastern Arabia, from southern Iraq to the mountains of Oman, was a place where people moved around, settled and married unconcerned by national borders.
Al-Hajar Mountains (جِبَال ٱلْحَجَر, The Rocky Mountains or The Stone Mountains) in northeastern Oman and also the eastern United Arab Emirates are the highest mountain range in the eastern Arabian peninsula.

Saudi Arabia

SaudiKingdom of Saudi ArabiaKSA
Saudi Arabia is often considered a Gulf Arab state although most Saudis do not live in Eastern Arabia.
The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of mainly four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir).

Gulf Arabic

GulfGulf dialectKhaliji
The Arabs of Eastern Arabia speak a dialect known as Gulf Arabic.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي ' local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية ', local pronunciation: ) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, as well as parts of eastern Saudi Arabia (Eastern Province), southern Iraq (Basra Governorate and Muthanna Governorate), and south Iran (Bushehr Province and Hormozgan Province) and northern Oman.

Qatif

al-QatifAl-KatifAl Qatif
This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Southern Iraq, and Northern Oman.
Qatif is one of the oldest settlements in Eastern Arabia, its history going back to 3500 BC.

Liwa (music)

LiwaLewa
The inhabitants of Eastern Arabia's Gulf coast share similar cultures and music styles such as fijiri, sawt and liwa.
Līwa (ليوه / ALA-LC: laywah) is a traditional dance of African origin performed in Eastern Arabia (Arab states of the Persian Gulf), mainly within communities of descendants of people from the Swahili Coast (Tanzania and Zanzibar).

Pre-Islamic Arabia

pre-Islamicpre-Islamic eraancient Arabia
Before the 7th century CE, the population of Eastern Arabia consisted of partially Christianized Arabs, Arab Zoroastrians, Jews and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists.
Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms such as the Sabaeans and Eastern Arabia was inhabited by Semitic speakers who presumably migrated from the southwest, such as the so-called Samad population.

Syriac language

SyriacClassical SyriacSyriac-Aramaic
Some sedentary dialects of Eastern Arabia exhibit Akkadian, Aramaic and Syriac features.
Syriac was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Anatolia and Eastern Arabia.

Aramaic

Aramaic languageMiddle AramaicChaldee
Before the 7th century CE, the population of Eastern Arabia consisted of partially Christianized Arabs, Arab Zoroastrians, Jews and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists. Some sedentary dialects of Eastern Arabia exhibit Akkadian, Aramaic and Syriac features.
At its height, variants of Aramaic were spoken all over in what is today Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Eastern Arabia, Northern Arabia, and to a lesser extent parts of southeast and south central Turkey, and parts of northwest Iran.

Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Eastern ProvinceEastern Regionthe Eastern Province
There are approximately 2 million Gulf Arabic speakers in Saudi Arabia, mostly in the coastal eastern region.
The inhabited areas had been known as "Al-Ahsa" under Ottoman rule, and the entire region of Eastern Arabia was mostly known as "Bahrân" from pre-Islamic times until 1521.

Al-Ahsa Oasis

Al-HasaAl-AhsaAl Hasa
This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Southern Iraq, and Northern Oman.
Its early history is similar to that of Eastern Arabia.

United Arab Emirates

UAEEmiratiUnited Arab Emirates (UAE)
This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Southern Iraq, and Northern Oman.
The United Arab Emirates military was formed in 1971 from the historical Trucial Oman Scouts, a long symbol of public order on Eastern Arabia and commanded by British officers.

Arab states of the Persian Gulf

Gulf StatesPersian Gulf statesPersian Gulf countries
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are solely Eastern Arabia, the borders of the Arabic-speaking Gulf do not extend beyond Eastern Arabia.
The inhabitants of Eastern Arabia's coast share similar cultures and music styles such as fijiri, sawt and liwa.

Meluhha

MeluhaMeluḫḫa
Following the collapse of the Kassite dynasty, Mesopotamian documents make no mention of Dilmun with the exception of Assyrian inscriptions dated to 1250 BC which proclaimed the Assyrian king to be king of Dilmun and Meluhha.
Dilmun was a Persian Gulf civilization which traded with Mesopotamian civilizations, the current scholarly consensus is that Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Failaka Island and the adjacent coast of Eastern Arabia in the Persian Gulf.

Qatar

QatariState of QatarQAT
This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Southern Iraq, and Northern Oman.
Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being significantly influenced by Islam.

Al-Ahsa Governorate

Al-AhsaAl Ahsaal-Dalwah
The researcher Abdulkhaliq Al Janbi argued in his book that Gerrha was most likely the ancient city of Hajar, located in modern-day Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
In the past, Al-Ahsa belonged to the historical region known as Bahrain, along with Qatif and the present-day Bahrain islands.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
It is currently unknown exactly when Gerrha fell, but the area was under Sassanid Persian control after 300 AD.
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.

Uyunid dynasty

UyunidsAl UyuniUyunid
The Uyunids, were an Arab dynasty that ruled eastern Arabia for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
The Uyunid dynasty were an Arab dynasty that ruled Eastern Arabia for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.

Jarwanid dynasty

JarwanidJarwanids
The Jarwanid dynasty was a Shi'ite dynasty that ruled eastern Arabia in the 14th century.
The Jarwanid Dynasty was a dynasty that ruled the Province of Bahrain in the 14th century.

Qarmatians

QarmatianCarmathiansQaramita
In the end of the 3rd Hijri century, Abu Sa'id al-Hasan al-Janaby led the Revolution of al-Qaramita, a rebellion by a messianic Ismaili sect originating in Kufa in present-day Iraq.
They were centered in al-Hasa (Eastern Arabia), where they established a religious-utopian republic in 899 CE.

Isaac of Nineveh

Isaac the SyrianIsaac of SyriaSt Isaac the Syrian
Several notable Nestorian writers originated from Beth Qatraye, including Isaac of Nineveh, Dadisho Qatraya, Gabriel of Qatar and Ahob of Qatar.
He was born in the region of Beth Qatraye in Eastern Arabia, a mixed Syriac and Arabic speaking region encompassing the south east of Mesopotamia and the north eastern Arabian peninsula.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
The Uyunids, were an Arab dynasty that ruled eastern Arabia for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms, such as the Sabaean kingdom (سَـبَـأ, possibly Sheba), and the coastal areas of Eastern Arabia were controlled by the Parthian and Sassanians from 300 BCE.

Banu Uqayl

UqaylBanu 'UqaylUqaylids
It then fell to the Usfurids of Banu Uqayl in 651 AH (1253 AD).
Banu Uqayl are an ancient Arab tribe that played an important role in the history of eastern Arabia and Iraq.

Iranian peoples

IranianIraniansIranian people
From the 6th to 3rd century BC Bahrain was included in Persian Empire by Achaemenians, an Iranian dynasty.
There are also Iranian peoples living in Eastern Arabia such as northern Oman and Bahrain.