Computer rendering of Eastern Europe
Traditional cultural borders of Europe: usage recommendation by the Standing Committee on Geographical Names, Germany.
"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Expansion of Christianity<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rbedrosian.com/Maps/ahgh66b.htm |title=Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land |publisher=Rbedrosian.com |access-date=23 February 2013 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130610034842/http://rbedrosian.com/Maps/ahgh66b.htm |archive-date=10 June 2013 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://home.comcast.net/~DiazStudents/MiddleAgesChurchMap1.jpg |title=home.comcast.net |access-date=23 February 2013 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130213233630/http://home.comcast.net/~DiazStudents/MiddleAgesChurchMap1.jpg |archive-date=February 13, 2013 }}</ref>
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Georgia (საქართველო, ; ) is a country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

- Georgia (country)

A large part of Eastern Europe is formed by countries with dominant Orthodox churches, like Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine, for instance.

- Eastern Europe

6 related topics

Alpha

Mount Elbrus

Caucasus

Mount Elbrus
Mount Bazardüzü
Mount Shahdagh
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region in 2014
Petroglyphs in Gobustan, Azerbaijan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, dating back to 10,000 BC
Kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its might, early 13th century.
Circassian strike on a Russian military fort in the Caucasus, 1840
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
View of the Caucasus Mountains in Dagestan, Russia
Rosa Khutor alpine ski resort near Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi, Russia, the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics venue
Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, original building completed in 303 AD, a religious centre of Armenia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Georgia, original building completed in the 4th century. It was a religious centre of monarchical Georgia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Northwest Caucasus caftan, 8-10th century, from the region of Alania.
Svaneti defensive tower houses
Palace of the Shirvanshahs, 13-th-15th centuries
Imamzadeh of Ganja, 7th-9th centuries
Celebration of Ashura, (Persian:Shakhsey-Vakhsey),19th century
Shamakhi, 19th century

The Caucasus, or Caucasia , is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea; mainly comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia.

The Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus range, have historically been considered as a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Azerbaijan

Petroglyphs in Gobustan National Park dating back to the 10th millennium BC indicating a thriving culture.
Territories of the khanates (and sultanates) in the 18th–19th century
The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813
Map presented by the delegation of Azerbaijan in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference
Soviet Army paratroopers during the Black January tragedy in 1990
Military situation in the Nagorno-Karabakh region prior to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Azerbaijan.
Caucasus Mountains in northern Azerbaijan
Mount Bazarduzu, the highest peak of Azerbaijan, as seen from Mount Shahdagh
The landscape of Khinalug valley
Murovdag is the highest mountain range in the Lesser Caucasus.
The Karabakh horse is the national animal of Azerbaijan.
Government building in Baku
The son of former President Heydar Aliyev, Ilham Aliyev, succeeded his father and has remained in power since 2003.
President İlham Aliyev with President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 31 October 2017
Ilham Aliyev with Russian president Vladimir Putin at the Caspian Sea Summit in Aktau, Kazakhstan, August 2018
Azerbaijani Navy fleet during the 2011 military parade in Baku
Contingent from the Azerbaijani military during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
Azerbaijan is divided into 14 economic regions.
Change in per capita GDP of Azerbaijan since 1973. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Azerbaijan exports, 2019
A pumping unit for the mechanical extraction of oil on the outskirts of Baku
The South Caucasus Pipeline is bringing natural gas through Turkey to Europe
Shahdag Mountain Resort is the country's largest winter resort.
Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory
Population pyramid
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku. The mosque is built over the tomb of a descendant of Muhammad.
Classroom in Dunya School
Uzeyir Hajibeyov merged traditional Azerbaijani music with Western styles in the early 20th century.
Alim Qasimov performs mugham at Eurovision Song Contest 2012. The Azerbaijani Mugham was inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Painting of Khurshidbanu Natavan, one of the most distinguished Azerbaijani poets. She was also the daughter of the last ruler of the Karabakh Khanate.
Traditional Azerbaijani clothing and musical instruments
Handwork coppery in Lahij
Dolma, a traditional Azerbaijani meal
Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhchivan built in the 12th century
A miniature painting of a battle scene on the walls of the Palace of Shaki Khans, 18th century, city of Shaki
Scene from the Azerbaijani film In the Kingdom of Oil and Millions, 1916
Rashadat Akhundov, the co-founder of Nida Civic Movement, was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment on 6 May 2014.
Baku National Stadium was used for the first European Games in June 2015.
Usta Gambar Karabakhi – Tree of Life
Mirza Gadim Iravani – Portrait of sitting woman
Bahruz Kangarli – Landscape with mountains
Azim Azimzade – Ruins of Reichstag

Azerbaijan (, ; Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

It is a part of the South Caucasus region, and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia (Republic of Dagestan) to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south.

Saint George's Cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey

Eastern Orthodox Church

Second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members.

Second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members.

Saint George's Cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey
Christ Pantocrator, sixth century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sinai; the oldest known icon of Christ, in one of the oldest monasteries in the world
Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic (Hagia Sophia, c. 1000)
An icon of Saint John the Baptist, 14th century, North Macedonia
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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Hagia Sophia, the largest church in the world and patriarchal basilica of Constantinople for nearly a thousand years, later converted into a mosque, then a museum, then back to a mosque.
The baptism of Princess Olga in Constantinople, a miniature from the Radzivill Chronicle
Latin Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Orthodox controlled Byzantine Empire, in 1204.
Timeline showing the main autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches, from an Eastern Orthodox point of view, up to 2021
Canonical territories of the main autocephalous and autonomous Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions as of 2020
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Percentage distribution of Eastern Orthodox Christians by country
John of Damascus
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Our Lady of Tinos is the major Marian shrine in Greece.
The Theotokos of Vladimir, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary
Last Judgment: 12th-century Byzantine mosaic from Torcello Cathedral
David glorified by the women of Israel from the Paris Psalter, example of the Macedonian art (Byzantine) (sometimes called the Macedonian Renaissance)
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Chanters singing on the kliros at the Church of St. George, Patriarchate of Constantinople
An illustration of the traditional interior of an Orthodox church.
Shards of pottery vases on the street, after being thrown from the windows of nearby houses. A Holy Saturday tradition in Corfu.
An Eastern Orthodox baptism
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The wedding of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
Eastern Orthodox subdeacon being ordained to the diaconate. The bishop has placed his omophorion and right hand on the head of the candidate and is reading the Prayer of Cheirotonia.
The consecration of the Rt Rev. Reginald Heber Weller as an Anglican bishop at the Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in the Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac, with the Rt. Rev. Anthony Kozlowski of the Polish National Catholic Church and Saint Tikhon, then Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska (along with his chaplains Fr. John Kochurov and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich) of the Russian Orthodox Church present
Pope Francis and Patriarch Bartholomew I in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 2014
The Constantinople Massacre of April 1821: a religious persecution of the Greek population of Constantinople under the Ottomans. Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople was executed.
The Pan-Orthodox Council, Kolymvari, Crete, Greece, June 2016
Cathedral of Evangelismos, Alexandria
Patriarchate of Peć in Kosovo, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century when its status was upgraded into a patriarchate
Traditional Paschal procession by Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church

As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.

The majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live mainly in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus, Georgia, and parts of the Caucasus region, Siberia, and the Russian Far East.

Russia

The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, in an evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897.
Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and the Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky during a 1920 speech in Moscow
Location of the Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union in 1936
The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.
Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.
Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia in 2014
Topographic map of Russia
Köppen climate classification of Russia.
Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi Republic is the largest national park in Europe.
Chart for the political system of Russia
frameless
Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.
Sukhoi Su-57, a fifth-generation fighter of the Russian Air Force.
Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, anti-war protests broke out across Russia. The protests have been met with widespread repression, leading to roughly 15,000 being arrested.
The Moscow International Business Center in Moscow. The city has one of the world's largest urban economies.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.
Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is the most iconic religious architecture of Russia.
Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.
Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.
The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.
The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), in a 1893 painting by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov
Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.
Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe.
Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.

Russia, or the Russian Federation (RF), is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.

Following a diplomatic crisis with neighboring Georgia; the Russo-Georgian War took place during 1–12 August 2008, resulting in Russia imposing two unrecognized states in the territory of Georgia.

North Ossetia–Alania

Mount Kazbek
Caucasus region in 1060
Ossetian tribes (both North and South) according to B. A. Kaloev.
Border changes after World War I.
Modern map of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
North Ossetian Landscape
Urukh River Valley
Cableway in Tsey canyon.
Kurtat valley
M. Tuganov Art Museum in Vladikavkaz
Seat of the Republic's Government
North Ossetia State University

The Republic of North Ossetia–Alania is a republic of Russia situated in the North Caucasus of Eastern Europe.

international: Georgia (including South Ossetia; Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti and Shida Kartli) (SE/S/SW)

European Union

Political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe.

Political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe.

Meeting in the Hall of Knights in The Hague, during the congress (9 May 1948)
The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession
Treaty of Maastricht, shown containing the signatures of some ministers representing their heads of state
Signing in the Jerónimos Monastery of Lisbon, Portugal
Topographic map of the European Union
Special territories of the European Union
Organigram of the political system with the seven institutions of the Union in blue, national / intergovernmental elements in orange
Roberta Metsola serves as President of the European Parliament
European Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India)
The CJEU's seat, the Palais de la Cour de Justice, in Luxembourg City.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights affirms the "Right to life" in the EU.
Josep Borrell, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. (G20 summit in Osaka, Japan, 2019).
Of the 27 EU member states, 21 (shown purple) are also members of NATO. Other colours: EU only (blue) and NATO only (orange, including four NATO members that are EU applicants – Albania, Montenegro, Turkey and North Macedonia).
The coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff (EUMS). The arms include Europe's crown of twelve golden stars, an anchor, wings and two crossed swords.
Eastern Partnership Summit 2015, Riga.
Union for the Mediterranean meeting in Barcelona.
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
The euro was introduced in 2002, replacing 12 national currencies. Seven countries have since joined.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
The Öresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden is part of the Trans-European Networks.
European Space Agency Mission Control at ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany
Vineyards in Romania; EU farms are supported by the Common Agricultural Policy, the largest budgetary expenditure.
Biogeographic regions of the continental European Union, according to the European Environmental Agency
Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Renaissance humanist after whom the Erasmus Programme is named
European Health Insurance Card (Slovenian version pictured)
Football fans before a match (San Siro stadium in Milan)
Europa and the Bull on a Greek vase, circa 480 BC. Tarquinia National Museum, Italy
Euronews headquarters in Lyon, France
The European emblem emblazoned on the Eiffel Tower
The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria
Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Seat of Frontex in Warsaw, Poland
The CJEU's seat, the Palais de la Cour de Justice, in Luxembourg City.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. (G7 summit in Cornwall, United Kingdom, 2021).
Eastern Partnership Summit 2017, Brussels.
Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands

The developing block prompted the Soviet Union to form the Warsaw Pact in 1955, allowing it to enforce its standing in Eastern Europe.

Georgia and Moldova also applied for accession to the EU in early March 2022.