Eastern Front (World War II)

Eastern FrontGreat Patriotic WarGerman-Soviet WarWorld War IIEastern Front of World War IIRussian frontSecond World WarSoviet-German WarwarEastern
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.wikipedia
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World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
This Eastern Front trapped the Axis, most crucially the German Wehrmacht, in a war of attrition.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
It has been known as the Great Patriotic War (Великая Отечественная война,Velikaya Otechestvennaya Voyna) in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front (die Ostfront), or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.
The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.

Continuation War

ContinuationwarWorld War II
In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may also be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front.
Germany regarded its operations in the region as part of its overall war efforts on the Eastern Front and provided Finland with critical material support and military assistance.

European theatre of World War II

European TheaterEuropean TheatreEuropean Theater of World War II
The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome in the European theatre of operations in World War II, eventually serving as the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis nations.
The Allied powers fought the Axis powers on two major fronts (the Eastern Front and Western Front) as well as in a strategic bombing offensive and in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East theatre.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, opening the most extensive and bloodiest theater of war in history.

Death marches (Holocaust)

death marchdeath marchesa death march
The Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches, ghettos, and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust.
They occurred at various points during the Holocaust, including 1939 in the Lublin province of Poland, in 1942 in Reichskommissariat Ukraine and across the General Government, and between Autumn 1944 and late April 1945 near the Soviet front, from the Nazi concentration camps and prisoner of war camps situated in the new Reichsgaue, to camps inside Germany proper, away from reach of the Allied forces.

Great Patriotic War (term)

Great Patriotic WarThe Great Patriotic WarWorld War II
It has been known as the Great Patriotic War (Великая Отечественная война,Velikaya Otechestvennaya Voyna) in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front (die Ostfront), or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.
The Great Patriotic War (Вели́кая Оте́чественная война́, Velikaja Otečestvennaja vojna; Велика Вітчизняна війна, Velyka Vitčyznjana vijna; Вялікая Айчынная вайна, Vjalikaja Ajčynnaja vajna) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for the Baltic states and Ukraine ) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany mainly.

Polish Armed Forces in the East

PolandPolish Army in the Eastin the East
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Together they constituted the Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, LWP); it fought on the Eastern Front under Soviet command all the way to the Battle of Berlin.

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Bessarabiaoccupied by the Soviet UnionSoviet occupation
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact ostensibly provided security to the Soviets in the occupation both of the Baltics and of the north and northeastern regions of Romania (Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia, June–July 1940), although Hitler, in announcing the invasion of the Soviet Union, cited the Soviet annexations of Baltic and Romanian territory as having violated Germany's understanding of the Pact.
In August 1944, during the Soviet Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, the Axis war effort on the Eastern Front collapsed.

Polish resistance movement in World War II

Polish resistancePolish resistance movementPolish underground
The Soviet Union offered support to the partisans in many Wehrmacht-occupied countries in Central Europe, notably those in Slovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia.
The Polish resistance is most notable for disrupting German supply lines to the Eastern Front, providing military intelligence to the British, and for saving more Jewish lives in the Holocaust than any other Western Allied organization or government.

Operation Barbarossa

German invasion of the Soviet Unioninvasion of the Soviet UnionGerman invasion
The conflict began on 22 June 1941 with the Operation Barbarossa offensive, when Axis forces crossed the borders described in the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact, thereby invading the Soviet Union.
The operation opened up the Eastern Front, in which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in history.

Blue Division

División AzulSpanish Blue DivisionDivision Azul
Among the most prominent volunteer army formations was the Spanish Blue Division, sent by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco to keep his ties to the Axis intact.
Infanterie-Division''' in the German Army, was a unit of Spanish volunteers and conscripts who served (1941-1944) in the German Army on the Eastern Front during the Second World War.

Escadron de Chasse 2/30 Normandie-Niemen

Normandie-NiemenFree FranceNormandie-Niemen Regiment
The Free French forces also contributed to the Red Army by the formation of the GC3 (Groupe de Chasse 3 or 3rd Fighter Group) unit to fulfil the commitment of Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French, who thought that it was important for French servicemen to serve on all fronts.
The unit served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army.

Kingdom of Italy

ItalyItalianFascist Italy
This conflict soon took on the characteristics of a proxy war involving the Soviet Union and left wing volunteers from different countries on the side of the predominantly socialist and communist-led Second Spanish Republic; while Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the Portuguese Republic took the side of Spanish Nationalists, the military rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. Axis allies such as Romania and Italy, Hungary, Finland, Croatia and Bulgaria benefited from Germany's net imports.
However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and in the Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, and the Fascist Party in areas (south of Rome) controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down.

Red Army

Soviet Red ArmySoviet ArmySoviet
The war ended on 9 May 1945, when Germany's armed forces surrendered unconditionally following the Battle of Berlin (also known as the Berlin Offensive), a strategic operation executed by the Red Army.
During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and ultimately captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin.

Maxim Litvinov

LitvinovMaxim LitvinoffMaksim Litvinov
The German Anschluss of Austria in 1938 and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia (1938–1939) demonstrated the impossibility of establishing a collective security system in Europe, a policy advocated by the Soviet ministry of foreign affairs under Maxim Litvinov.
Litvinov survived the Great Patriotic War and died a natural death in the USSR in 1951.

Generalplan Ost

General Plan Eastplannedplans for them
The Nazi vision for the future of Eastern Europe was codified most clearly in the Generalplan Ost.
The document was revised several times between June 1941 and spring 1942 as the war in the east progressed successfully.

Non-aggression pact

non-aggressionnon-aggression treatynonaggression pact
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union.
For example, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact freed German resources from the Russian front and was the trigger for the Second World War.

Battle of Moscow

Operation TyphoonMoscowBattle for Moscow
This decision, Hitler's "summer pause", is believed to have had a severe impact on the Battle of Moscow's outcome, by slowing down the advance on Moscow in favour of encircling large numbers of Soviet troops around Kiev.
The Battle of Moscow was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.

Independent State of Croatia

CroatiaNDHCroatian
Axis allies such as Romania and Italy, Hungary, Finland, Croatia and Bulgaria benefited from Germany's net imports.
In 1942, Germany suggested Italy take military control of all of Croatia out of a desire to redirect German troops from Croatia to the Eastern Front.

Northwestern Front

North-Western FrontNorthwesternNorthwest
On the same day, the Baltic, Western and Kiev Special military districts were renamed the Northwestern, Western and Southwestern Fronts respectively.
It was re-created on 22 June 1941, the first day of the Soviet-German War on the basis of the Baltic Special Military District.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Russian SFSRRSFSRSoviet Russia
Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies (November 1918) and these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at Versailles, Soviet Russia was in the midst of a civil war and the Allies did not recognise the Bolshevik government, so no Soviet Russian representation attended.
In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was dissolved by Joseph Stalin (1878-1953), General Secretary of the Communist Party and Marshall, later Premier and dictator, when the Karachays were exiled to Central Asia for their alleged collaboration with the invading Nazi Germans in the Great Patriotic War (World War II, 1941–1945), and territory was incorporated into the Georgian SSR.

German Army (1935–1945)

German ArmyArmyArmy (Wehrmacht)
The above figures includes all personnel in the German Army, i.e. active-duty Heer, Waffen SS, Luftwaffe ground forces, personnel of the naval coastal artillery and security units.
This created such a situation that by 1942 the OKW was the de facto command of Western Theatre forces while the Army High Command (OKH) was the same on the Eastern Front.

Siege of Leningrad

Leningradsiegebesieged Leningrad
This began the 900-day Siege of Leningrad.
The siege of Leningrad was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against the Soviet city of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) on the Eastern Front in World War II.

World War II casualties

60 million peoplecasualties70 million people
Of the estimated 70–85 million deaths attributed to World War II around 30 million occurred on the Eastern Front.
While the Nazi Party's own SS forces (in particular the SS-Totenkopfverbände, Einsatzgruppen and Waffen-SS) of Nazi Germany was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of the Holocaust, the regular armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht committed war crimes of their own, particularly on the Eastern Front in the war against the Soviet Union.