Eastern savannas of the United States

savannaspine savannassavannaeastern savannaspine savannasavannas of the eastern seaboardsouthern pine savannas
The eastern savannas of the United States covered large portions of the southeast side of the continent until the early 20th century.wikipedia
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Tallgrass prairie

tall grass prairietallgrasstall-grass prairie
The southeast also had the Black Belt prairie region, within which was the blackland prairie, a type of tallgrass prairie.
To the east were the fire-maintained eastern savannas.

Longleaf pine

Pinus palustrislongleaflongleaf pines
In the southeast, longleaf pine dominated the savanna and open-floored forests which once covered 92000000 acre from Virginia to Texas.
Periodic natural wildfire selects for this species by killing other trees, leading to open longleaf pine forests or savannas.

Pre-Columbian savannas of North America

savannas of North America
The Eastern savannas of the United States extended further east to the Atlantic seaboard.

Fire ecology

firefire cyclefire ecologist
These were in a fire ecology of open grassland and forests with low ground cover of herbs and grasses.

Savanna

savannahsavannassavannahs
The frequent fires which maintained the savannas were started by the region's many thunderstorms and Native Americans, with most fires burning the forest understory and not affecting the mature trees above.

Thunderstorm

thunderstormssevere thunderstormelectrical storm
The frequent fires which maintained the savannas were started by the region's many thunderstorms and Native Americans, with most fires burning the forest understory and not affecting the mature trees above.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
The frequent fires which maintained the savannas were started by the region's many thunderstorms and Native Americans, with most fires burning the forest understory and not affecting the mature trees above.

Lightning

lightning boltlightning strikelightning strikes
Before the arrival of humans about 15,000 years ago, lightning would have been the major source of ignition, the region having the most frequent wind and lightning storms in North America.

British Isles

BritainBritishThe British Isles
The European settlers who displaced the natives blended the local use of fire with their customary use of fire as pastoral herdsmen in the British Isles, Spain, and France.

Oak

Quercusoak treeoak trees
In oak–hickory areas, estimates range from 3 to 14 years, although trails were kept open with fire.

Hickory

Caryahickorieshickory tree
In oak–hickory areas, estimates range from 3 to 14 years, although trails were kept open with fire.

Last Glacial Maximum

last ice ageice ageglacial maximum
During the Last Glacial Maximum about 18,000 years ago, when the glacial front extended south to the approximate location of the Ohio River, preexisting natural communities in the Southeast remained largely intact.

Ohio River

OhioOhio ValleyList of cities and towns along the Ohio River
During the Last Glacial Maximum about 18,000 years ago, when the glacial front extended south to the approximate location of the Ohio River, preexisting natural communities in the Southeast remained largely intact.

Temperate deciduous forest

deciduousdeciduous forestdeciduous forests
Temperate deciduous forests dominated from about 33° to 30° N. latitude, including most of the glacial Gulf Coast from about 84° W. longitude.

Sea level rise

rising sea levelssea-level risesea level change
The coastline later changed during glacial melt, both in the Mississippi River valley and sea level rise of 130 meters.

American chestnut

Castanea dentatachestnutchestnut tree
Oak, hickory, chestnut, and southern pine species were abundant.

Walnut

walnutsJuglanswalnut trees
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Fagus grandifolia

American beechbeechAmerican beech (''Fagus grandifolia'')
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Liquidambar styraciflua

sweetgumAmerican sweetgumAmerican sweet gum
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Alder

Alnusalder treealder trees
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Birch

Betulabirch treebirch trees
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Liriodendron tulipifera

tulip poplaryellow poplartulip tree
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Elm

Ulmuselm treeelms
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Hornbeam

CarpinushornbeamsEuropean Hornbeam
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.

Tilia

lindenlimelime tree
Walnuts, beech, sweetgum, alder, birch, tulip tree, elms, hornbeams, tilias, and others that are generally common in modern southern deciduous forests were also common then.