Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologicallyecologistsanimal ecologyecologiesenvironmentecoeco-ecologic
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is a branch of biology that studies the interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment, which includes both biotic and abiotic components.wikipedia
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Primary production

primary productivitynet primary productivityproductivity
Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment.
In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.

Environmentalism

environmentalenvironmentalistEcologism
For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.

Environmental science

Environmental Sciencesenvironmental scientistenvironmental
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanography, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography, and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

Agroecology

agro-ecologicalagro-ecologyagroecological
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology).
Bringing ecological principles to bear can suggest new management approaches in agroecosystems.

Conservation biology

conservationAnimal conservationconservationist
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology).
Conservation biology is tied closely to ecology in researching the population ecology (dispersal, migration, demographics, effective population size, inbreeding depression, and minimum population viability) of rare or endangered species.

Urban ecology

urbanurban habitat
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology).
The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology.

Agroforestry

alley croppingagro-forestryagroforests
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology).
According to Wojtkowski, the theoretical base for agroforestry lies in ecology, or agroecology.

Evolutionary biology

evolutionary biologistevolutionary biologistsevolutionary
In the 1930s, the discipline of evolutionary biology emerged through what Julian Huxley called the modern synthesis of understanding, from previously unrelated fields of biological research, such as genetics and ecology, systematics and paleontology.

Abiotic component

abioticabiotic factorsabiotic factor
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is a branch of biology that studies the interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment, which includes both biotic and abiotic components. Organisms (including humans) and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of the planet.
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
The word "ecology" ("Ökologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919 ) was a German zoologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

Resource (biology)

resourcesresourcebiological resources
Organisms (including humans) and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of the planet. The competitive exclusion principle states that two species cannot coexist indefinitely by living off the same limiting resource; one will always out-compete the other.
In Biology and Ecology, a resource is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

Human ecology

Ecologyhumanhuman ecologist
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology).
The philosophy and study of human ecology has a diffuse history with advancements in ecology, geography, sociology, psychology, anthropology, zoology, epidemiology, public health, and home economics, among others.

Ethology

ethologistanimal behavioranimal behaviour
Ethology combines laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to some other disciplines such as neuroanatomy, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is organized into a nested hierarchy, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species, to populations, to communities, to ecosystems, to biomes, and up to the level of the biosphere.
That understanding was greatly extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology.

Abundance (ecology)

abundanceabundancesabundant
In ecology, local abundance is the relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century.
The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies.

Biosphere

ecospherebiosphericenvironment
To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is organized into a nested hierarchy, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species, to populations, to communities, to ecosystems, to biomes, and up to the level of the biosphere.
By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

Natural resource management

resource managementNatural Resources ManagementNatural resource sociology
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology).
Natural Resource Management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources.

Competitive exclusion principle

competitive exclusioncompetitively excludeGause's law
The competitive exclusion principle states that two species cannot coexist indefinitely by living off the same limiting resource; one will always out-compete the other.
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.

Ecological succession

successionsuccessionalplant succession
Ecosystems are dynamic, they do not always follow a linear successional path, but they are always changing, sometimes rapidly and sometimes so slowly that it can take thousands of years for ecological processes to bring about certain successional stages of a forest.
Succession was among the first theories advanced in ecology.

Theoretical ecology

theoretical ecologistecological theorymathematical ecology
Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the cornerstones of modern ecological theory.
Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.

Biological interaction

interactionEcological relationshipbiotic interactions
Ecological relationships regulate the flux of energy, nutrients, and climate all the way up to the planetary scale.
In ecology, a biological interaction is the effect that a pair of organisms living together in a community have on each other.

Biogeography

biogeographicbiogeographicalbiogeographically
Biogeographical patterns and range distributions are explained or predicted through knowledge of a species' traits and niche requirements.
Biogeography is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecology, evolutionary biology, geology, and physical geography.

Life history theory

life historylife historieslife-history
Habitat shifts also occur in the developmental life history of amphibians, and in insects that transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats.
The theory depends on principles of evolutionary biology and ecology and is widely used in other areas of science.

Logistic function

logisticlogistic curvelogistic growth
Using these modelling techniques, Malthus' population principle of growth was later transformed into a model known as the logistic equation:
The logistic function finds applications in a range of fields, including artificial neural networks, biology (especially ecology), biomathematics, chemistry, demography, economics, geoscience, mathematical psychology, probability, sociology, political science, linguistics, and statistics.