Economy

economiceconomiesnational economyMinister of Economyeconomicallyeconomic affairseconomicseconomistnational economieseconomic sectors
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents.wikipedia
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Technology

technologiestechnologicaltechnical
It has changed over time due to technology (automation, accelerator of process, reduction of cost functions), innovation (new products, services, processes, expanding markets, diversification of markets, niche markets, increases revenue functions) such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations (most notably child labor being replaced in some parts of the world with universal access to education).
It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class.

Green economy

green economicsgreen economistsgreen
A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive.
The green economy is defined as economy that aims at making issues of reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.

Low-carbon economy

low-carbonlow carbonlow carbon economy
A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive.
A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Today the range of fields of study examining the economy revolves around the social science of economics, but may include sociology (economic sociology), history (economic history), anthropology (economic anthropology), and geography (economic geography).
Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work.

Economic history

economic historianeconomiceconomic historians
Today the range of fields of study examining the economy revolves around the social science of economics, but may include sociology (economic sociology), history (economic history), anthropology (economic anthropology), and geography (economic geography).
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.

Economic anthropology

economic anthropologisteconomiceconomic anthropologists
Today the range of fields of study examining the economy revolves around the social science of economics, but may include sociology (economic sociology), history (economic history), anthropology (economic anthropology), and geography (economic geography).
Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope.It is an amalgamation of economics and anthropology.It is practiced by anthropologists and has a complex relationship with the discipline of economics, of which it is highly critical.

Barter

barter economybarteringbarter trade
A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency.
Economists since the times of Adam Smith (1723-1790), looking at non-specific pre-modern societies as examples, have used the inefficiency of barter to explain the emergence of money, of "the" economy, and hence of the discipline of economics itself.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
Today the range of fields of study examining the economy revolves around the social science of economics, but may include sociology (economic sociology), history (economic history), anthropology (economic anthropology), and geography (economic geography).
By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, education, health, economy and trade, and art.

Trade

tradingmercantileexchange
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents.
It criticised Mercantilism, and argued that economic specialisation could benefit nations just as much as firms.

Globalization

globalisationglobalizedglobal
The discoveries of Marco Polo (1254–1324), Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) and Vasco da Gama (1469–1524) led to a first global economy.
All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe.

Infrastructure

infrastructuralinfrastructuresurban infrastructure
Bankers like Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773–1855) started to finance national projects such as wars and infrastructure.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

Ecosystem services

ecosystem serviceenvironmental servicesecological services
In a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ecosystem services decisions require making complex choices at the intersection of ecology, technology, society and the economy.

Neoliberalism

neoliberalneo-liberalneo-liberalism
This was explored and discussed by Friedrich August von Hayek (1899–1992) and Milton Friedman (1912–2006) who pleaded for a global free trade and are supposed to be the fathers of the so-called neoliberalism.
Neoliberalism is generally associated with policies of economic liberalization, including privatization, deregulation, free trade, austerity, and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society.

Wirtschaftswunder

economic miracleGerman economic miracle“Economic Miracle”
In the late 1950s, the economic growth in America and Europe—often called Wirtschaftswunder (ger: economic miracle) —brought up a new form of economy: mass consumption economy.
The term Wirtschaftswunder (, "economic miracle"), also known as the Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an ordoliberalism-based social market economy).

Keynesian economics

KeynesianKeynesianismKeynesian theory
The theory that the state can alleviate economic problems and instigate economic growth through state manipulation of aggregate demand is called Keynesianism in his honor.
Keynesian economics (sometimes Keynesianism, named for the economist John Maynard Keynes) are various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total spending in the economy).

Market (economics)

marketmarketsmarket forces
However, the prevailing view was that held by John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946), who argued for a stronger control of the markets by the state.
Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price, which is a major topic of study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand.

Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC., and referred to a specific mass of barley which related other values in a metric such as silver, bronze, copper etc. A barley/shekel was originally both a unit of currency and a unit of weight, just as the British Pound was originally a unit denominating a one-pound mass of silver.
Sumerian temples functioned as banks and developed the first large-scale system of loans and credit, but the Babylonians developed the earliest system of commercial banking.

Industry

industrialindustriesindustrial development
An industry is a sector that produces goods or related services within an economy.

Three-sector model

three-sector theorythree-sector hypothesisquinary
According to the model, the main focus of an economy's activity shifts from the primary, through the secondary and finally to the tertiary sector.

Unemployment

unemployedunemployment ratejob creation
Unemployment and the status of the economy can be influenced by a country through for example fiscal policy.

Ecological economics

ecological economistecologicalecological economists
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.

Macroeconomics

macroeconomicmacroeconomistmacroeconomic policy
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" + economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

World economy

global economyworld marketglobal economics
The world economy or global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account.

Consumer spending

consumer expenditureconsumer expendituresConsumption expenditure
Taxes are a tool in the adjustment of the economy.

Microeconomics

microeconomicmicroeconomic theoryprice theory
Information economics or the economics of information is a branch of microeconomic theory that studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions.