Economy of India under Company rule

Photograph of East India Company factory in Painam, Sonargaon, Bangladesh, a major producer of the celebrated Dhaka muslins.
"Mellor Mill" in Marple, Greater Manchester, England, was constructed in 1790–93 for manufacturing muslin cloth.
Opium Godown (Storehouse) in Patna, Bihar (c. 1814). Patna was the centre of the Company opium industry.
Indigo dye factory in Bengal. Bengal was the world's largest producer of natural indigo in the 19th century.

The Economy of India under Company rule describes the economy of those regions that fell under Company rule in India during the years 1757 to 1858.

- Economy of India under Company rule

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East India Company

English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601
fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies
The emperor Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour, watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615 to 1618, and others
Document with the original vermilion seal of Tokugawa Ieyasu, granting trade privileges in Japan to the East India Company in 1613
French illustration of Sir Josiah Child requesting a pardon from the Emperor Aurangzeb
Rear view of the East India Company's Factory at Cossimbazar
Company painting depicting an official of the East India Company, c. 1760
Saltpetre used for gunpowder was one of the major trade goods of the company
The expanded East India House, London, painted by Thomas Malton, c. 1800
Addiscombe Seminary, photographed in c.1859, with cadets in the foreground
Ships in Bombay Harbour, c. 1731
was one of the five East Indiamen the Spanish fleet captured in 1780
English, Dutch and Danish factories at Mocha
An 18th-century depiction of Henry Every, with the Fancy shown engaging its prey in the background
British pirates that fought during the Child's War engaging the Ganj-i-Sawai
Depiction of Captain Every's encounter with the Mughal Emperor's granddaughter after his September 1695 capture of the Mughal trader Ganj-i-Sawai
Downman (1685)
Lens (1700)
National Geographic (1917)
Rees (1820)
Laurie (1842)
HEIC Merchant's mark on a Blue Scinde Dawk postage stamp (1852)
The East offering its riches to Britannia - Roma Spiridone, 1778 - BL Foster 245
Engraving of East India House, Leadenhall Street (1766)

Economy of India under Company rule


The Bangash or Bungish (بنګښ; also spelled Bangakh) are a tribe of ethnic Pashtuns of Karlani lineage.

Babur attacking Kohat in 1505
Muhammad Khan Bangash (1713-1743), the first Nawab of Farrukhabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
The Taj Mahal palace at Bhopal, built by Shah Jahan Begum (1868–1901)

However, Bangash-held Farrukhabad suffered from a steep economic and political decline under the British Company Raj, because the British colonial officers ordered to close the famed Farrukhabad mint and halt the bullion trade in 1824 as part of their policy to centralize the economy of India.

Economy of India under the British Raj

The role and scale of British imperial policy during the British Raj (1858 to 1947) on India's relative decline in global GDP remains a topic of debate among economists, historians and politicians.

The global contribution to world's GDP by major economies from 1 CE to 2003 CE according to Angus Maddison's estimates. Up until the early 18th century, China and India were the two largest economies by GDP output.
Railway map of India in 1871
Railway map of India in 1909

This was a higher rate of growth than during the Mughal era (1600-1700), when it had grown by 22%, an annual growth rate of 0.20%, or the longer period of mostly British East Indian company rule from 1700 to 1850 where it grew 39% or 0.22% annually.

Alexander and Co.

Agency House in British India founded by traders and merchants from Scotland.

The legacy of the Alexander and Co. and its role in shaping the economic fortunes of India have been widely recognized.

Agency Houses in British India

Agency Houses in British India, were trading companies that arose in 17th and 18th century India during the Company rule in India.

Areas of South Asia under Company rule (a) 1774–1804 and (b) 1805–1858 shown in two shades of pink

The agency houses played a major role in shaping the economy of colonial India.