Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Embera girl dressed for a dance
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Santo Domingo Church
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
Ecuador in 1832
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
A map of Panama
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
La Palma, Darién
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
The Chagres River
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Colón Harbor, 2000
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
Map of Ecuador
The National Assembly of Panama
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
Ecuadorian topography
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
Zapatilla Island, Panama
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
Population pyramid, 2016
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
Panama's population, 1961–2003
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
Panama City, Panama's capital
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
Erika Ender
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training
Population pyramid in 2020
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Juan Montalvo
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It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

- Panama

Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.

- Ecuador

12 related topics

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Colombia

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.

Venezuela

Country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.

Country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.

The German Welser Armada exploring Venezuela.
El Libertador, Simón Bolívar.
Revolution of 19 April 1810, the beginning of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar
The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar.
Flag of Venezuela between 1954 and 2006.
Rómulo Betancourt (president 1945–1948 / 1959–1964), one of the major democracy leaders of Venezuela.
Table where the Puntofijo Pact was signed on 31 October 1958
Sabana Grande district, Caracas (1973)
President Carlos Andrés Pérez was impeached on corruption charges in 1993.
Chávez with fellow South American presidents Néstor Kirchner of Argentina and Lula da Silva of Brazil
Nicolás Maduro with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the 48th Mercosur Summit in Brazil in 2015.
Maduro was inaugurated for a contested and controversial second term on 10 January 2019.
Topographic map of Venezuela
Venezuela map of Köppen climate classification
The national animal of Venezuela is the troupial (Icterus icterus),
Valencia Lake, formerly praised by Alexander von Humboldt for its beauty, is massively polluted due to the countless sewage systems pouring residuals.
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Bolívar Peak, the highest mountain in Venezuela
Los Llanos, Apure state
Valle de Mifafí, Mérida State
Médanos de Coro National Park, Falcón State
National Assembly of Venezuela building
Protests in Altamira, Caracas (2014)
The Guayana Esequiba claim area is a territory administered by Guyana and historically claimed by Venezuela.
President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2017 ALBA gathering
A Sukhoi Su-30MKV of the Venezuelan Air Force
Map of the Venezuelan federation
A proportional representation of Venezuela exports, 2019
Líder Mall, one of the main shopping centers in Caracas
Ángel falls one of Venezuela's top tourist attractions, the world highest waterfall
Empty shelves in a store in Venezuela due to shortages in 2014
Venezuela's exports of crude oil from January 2018 to December 2019
A map of world oil reserves according to OPEC, 2013. Venezuela has the world's largest oil reserves.
Caracas Metro in Los Jardines Station
The Venezuelan Academy of Language studies the development of the Spanish in the country.
University Hospital, Central University of Venezuela
Illiteracy rate in Venezuela based on data from UNESCO and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) of Venezuela
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios
Antonio Herrera Toro, self portrait 1880
The Guanaguanare dance, a popular dance in Portuguesa State
Venezuela national baseball team in 2015
Venezuela national football team, popularly known as the "Vinotinto"

Sucre, who won many battles for Bolívar, went on to liberate Ecuador and later become the second president of Bolivia.

In the period 2003 - 2008 Venezuelan authorities seized the fifth largest total quantity of cocaine in the world, behind Colombia, the United States, Spain and Panama.

Viceroyalty of New Granada

Viceroyalty of New Granada
Spanish and Portuguese empires, 1790.
Viceroyalty of New Granada
Map of La Guajira in 1769
Pedro Messía de la Cerda, Viceroy of New Granada

The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de Nueva Granada ) also called Viceroyalty of the New Kingdom of Granada or Viceroyalty of Santafé was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.

Spanish Empire

Colonial empire governed by Spain and its predecessor states between 1492 and 1976.

Colonial empire governed by Spain and its predecessor states between 1492 and 1976.

All areas of the world that were ever part of the Spanish Empire
Crowns and Kingdoms of the Catholic Monarchs in Europe (1500)
The Capitulation of Granada by F. Pradilla: Muhammad XII (Boabdil) surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella.
El gran capitán at the Battle of Cerignola.
The conquest of the Canary Islands (1402–1496)
Iberian 'mare clausum' in the Age of Discovery
Monument to Columbus, Statue commemorating New World discoveries. Western façade of monument. Isabella at the center, Columbus on the left, a cross on her right. Plaza de Colón, Madrid (1881–85)
The return of Columbus, 1493
Castile and Portugal divided the world in The Treaty of Tordesillas.
Iberian-born pope Alexander VI promulgated bulls that invested the Spanish monarchs with ecclesiastical power in the newly found lands overseas.
Ferdinand the Catholic points across the Atlantic to the landing of Columbus, with naked natives. Frontispiece of Giuliano Dati's Lettera, 1493.
Columbus landing in 1492 planting the flag of Spain, by John Vanderlyn
Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. Founded in 1502, the city is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the New World.
Cumaná, Venezuela. Founded in 1510, the city is the oldest continuously inhabited European city in the continental Americas.
Battle of Vega Real (1494)
Spanish territories in the New World around 1515
Approximate reconstruction of the route of Juan Ponce de León on his voyage of discovery of Florida (1513)
Cerro de Potosí, discovered in 1545, the rich, sole source of silver from Peru, worked by compulsory indigenous labor called mit'a
Main trade routes of the Spanish Empire
Spanish galleon, the mainstay of transatlantic and transpacific shipping, engraving by Albert Durer
Cover of the English translation of the Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713 as part of the Utrecht treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession. The contract broke the monopoly of Spanish slave traders to sell slaves in Spanish America
Philip V of Spain (r. 1700–1746), the first Spanish monarch of the House of Bourbon.
Representation of the two powers, church and state, symbolized by the altar and the throne, with the presence of the king Charles III and the Pope Clement XIV, seconded by the Viceroy, Antonio Bucareli, and the Archbishop of Mexico, Alonso Núñez de Haro, respectively, before the Virgin Mary. "Glorification of the Immaculate Conception".
San Felipe de Barajas Fortress Cartagena de Indias. In 1741, the Spanish repulsed a British attack on this fortress in present-day Colombia in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias.
Portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by Friedrich Georg Weitsch, 1806
Spanish expedition to Oran (1732)
Battle of Cartagena de Indias (1741). Spain managed to defeat Britain and inflict heavy casualties.
Painting of Bernardo de Gálvez at the Siege of Pensacola (1781) during the American War of Independence. Gálvez cleared the south part of the United States of the British fortresses
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
Spanish territorial claims on the West Coast of North America in the 18th century, contested by the Russians and the British. Most of what Spain claimed in Nootka was not directly occupied or controlled.
Spanish Empire in 1790. In North America, Spain claimed lands west of the Mississippi River and the Pacific coast from California to Alaska, but it did not control them on the ground. The crown constructed missions and presidios in coastal California and sent maritime expeditions to the Pacific Northwest to assert sovereignty.
Churruca's Death, oil on canvas about the Battle of Trafalgar by Eugenio Álvarez Dumont, Prado Museum.
Spanish Constitution of 1812 enacted by the Cortes of Cádiz
The Americas towards the year 1800, the colored territories were considered provinces in some maps of the Spanish Empire.
Spanish troops routing Dominican rebels at Monte Cristi
The explosion of the USS Maine (ACR-1) in Havana Harbor led to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence
Filipino soldiers during the near end of the Revolution
The Spanish Empire in 1898
A map of Equatorial Guinea
General Prim at the Battle of Tétouan
Spanish officers in Africa in 1920
Morocco and Spanish territories
Villa de Leyva, Colombia plaza de armas. Spain impregnate its public square style in present-day Hispanic America.
Roof tiles are a common Hispanic American architectural element because Spanish colonization. Hospital Escuela Eva Perón in Granadero Baigorria, Santa Fe, Argentina.
A photo of Cathedral of Mexico City, it is one of the largest cathedrals in Americas, built on the ruins of the Aztec main square.
Detail of a Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace of Mexico showing the ethnic differences between Agustín de Iturbide, a criollo, and the multiracial Mexican court

The first settlement on the mainland was Santa María la Antigua del Darién in Castilla de Oro (now Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia), settled by Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1510.

Further north, Simón Bolívar led forces that won independence between 1811 and 1826 for the area that became Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú and Bolivia (then Alto Perú).

Gran Colombia

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
A mural by Santiago Martinez Delgado at the Colombian Congress representing the Congress of Cúcuta
Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
The departments of Gran Colombia in 1820
A map of Gran Colombia showing the 12 departments created in 1824 and territories disputed with neighboring countries
Colombia
Ecuador
Venezuela

It included present-day Colombia, mainland Ecuador (i.e. excluding the Galapagos Islands), Panama, and Venezuela, along with parts of northern Peru and northwestern Brazil.

Organization of American States

International organization that was founded on 30 April 1948 for the purposes of solidarity and co-operation among its member states within the Americas.

International organization that was founded on 30 April 1948 for the purposes of solidarity and co-operation among its member states within the Americas.

The Pan American Union Building shortly after its construction in Washington, D. C., 1910
Logo in 1909 publication
Pan American Union headquarters building in Washington, D.C., 1943.
Seal with the official name in English.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo speaks at the OAS Permanent Council in January 2019.
A session of the OAS's thirty-fifth General Assembly in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States, June 2005
Those attending the Extraordinary Assembly of the OAS voted to suspend Honduras.
Statue of Isabella I the Catholic Queen in front of the seat of the Organization of American States in Washington, D.C.

This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela), Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, The United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately ratified only by Gran Colombia.

World administrative levels

Presidential system

Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

World administrative levels

🇪🇨 Ecuador

🇵🇦 Panama

Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)

Viceroyalty of Peru

Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)
The Marquess of Salinas del Río Pisuerga, 8th Viceroy of Peru
Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)
Location of the most important Jesuit Reductions, with present political divisions.
Colonized area in its maximum extension ca 1650 (dark green) and the Viceroyalty in 1816 (dark brown)
The Plaza Mayor and the Cathedral of Lima
In The Distrest Poet, William Hogarth's portrait of a Grub Street poet starving to death, there is on the wall behind him a placard entitled "A view of the Gold Mines of Peru", reflecting the common perception of Spanish Peru as being an economically welcoming place for immigrants.
The Battle of Ayacucho
Charles I, King of Spain and the Indies. The Viceroyalty of Peru was founded under his reign.
The audiencia subdivisions of the Viceroyalty of Peru c. 1650, as numbered in the article.
Silver coin: 8 reales Carlos IV, Viceroyalty of Peru - 1800
Potosí with Cerro Rico
The social classes in the Viceroyalty of Peru: Pink and fuchsia colors represented the lowest demographic class - the slaves were at the lowest level, above which were poor Spaniards, native people, mestizos, free dark-skinned people and the castas; yellow color were the middle social class - traders, noble natives, corregidors; and green color of the pyramid was the upper class - the oidors and Tribunal del Consulado's traders.
Pin (Tupu), 18th century., Brooklyn Museum, Peru's indigenous elite used visual traditions to negotiate power and privilege through self-representation. High-ranking Andean women wore untailored dresses called anacus throughout the colonial period, typically topped with a lliclla, a mantle or shawl worn across the shoulders, and secured with one or more tupus, metal pins with large, often elaborately worked, ornamental heads
Santa Rosa de Lima
1534 Portuguese America according to the Treaty of Tordesillas
1750 Portuguese America according to the Treaty of Madrid (1750)

These movements led to the formation of the modern-day country of Peru, as well as Chile, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina, the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Pacific Ocean

Largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions.

Largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions.

Partial picture of the Pacific Ocean from space, by the Apollo 11 crew
Model of a Fijian drua, an example of an Austronesian vessel with a double-canoe (catamaran) hull and a crab claw sail
Map showing the migration of the Austronesian peoples, the first seaborne human migration in history (c.3000-1500 BCE)
Map showing a large number of Spanish expeditions across the Pacific Ocean from the 16th to 18th centuries including the Manila galleon route between Acapulco and Manila, the first transpacific trade route in history.
Universalis Cosmographia, the Waldseemüller map dated 1507, from a time when the nature of the Americas was ambiguous, particularly North America, as a possible part of Asia, was the first map to show the Americas separating two distinct oceans. South America was generally considered a "new world" and shows the name "America" for the first time, after Amerigo Vespucci
The bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 23 January 1960
Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars taking over Tahiti on 9 September 1842
Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station. tops of thunderclouds are also visible.
The island geography of the Pacific Ocean Basin
Regions, island nations and territories of Oceania
Tarawa Atoll in the Republic of Kiribati
Sunset in Monterey County, California, U.S.
Impact of El Niño and La Niña on North America
Typhoon Tip at global peak intensity on 12 October 1979
Ring of Fire. The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches.
Ulawun stratovolcano situated on the island of New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Mount Saint Helens in 2020
Pacific Ocean currents have created 3 "islands" of debris.
Marine debris on a Hawaiian coast
Prime Minister Suga declined to drink the bottle of Fukushima's treated radioactive water that he was holding, which would otherwise be discharged to the Pacific. 2020.
Made in 1529, the Diogo Ribeiro map was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size
Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1754.
Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-01-093/|title=Library Acquires Copy of 1507 Waldseemüller World Map – News Releases (Library of Congress)|publisher=Loc.gov|access-date=April 20, 2013}}</ref>
Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1702–1707
Ladrilleros Beach in Colombia on the coast of Chocó natural region
Tahuna maru islet, French Polynesia
Los Molinos on the coast of Southern Chile

Ecuador

Panama

South America

Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
A composite relief image of South America
Modern political map of South America
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
South American flags
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Official languages in South America
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Peruvian woman and her son
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and one internal territory: French Guiana.

In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.