A report on South AmericaEcuador and Panama

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
A composite relief image of South America
Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Embera girl dressed for a dance
Modern political map of South America
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Santo Domingo Church
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
Ecuador in 1832
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
A map of Panama
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
La Palma, Darién
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
The Chagres River
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Colón Harbor, 2000
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
Map of Ecuador
The National Assembly of Panama
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
Ecuadorian topography
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
Zapatilla Island, Panama
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
Population pyramid, 2016
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
Panama City, Panama's capital
South American flags
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
Erika Ender
Official languages in South America
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
Population pyramid in 2020
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Peruvian woman and her son
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Juan Montalvo
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
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KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

Ecuador (Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

- Ecuador

Panama (, ; Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and one internal territory: French Guiana.

- South America

It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

- Panama

In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

- South America

Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.

- Ecuador

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Colombia

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Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with an insular region in North America.

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.