Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

Ecumenical PatriarchatePatriarchate of ConstantinopleConstantinopleChurch of ConstantinoplePatriarchateGreek Orthodox ChurchOrthodoxGreek OrthodoxIstanbulPatriarchal
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, ; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fifteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.wikipedia
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Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanIstanbulcapital
Because of its historical location as the capital of the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and its role as the Mother Church of most modern Orthodox churches, Constantinople holds a special place of honor within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of Primus inter pares (first among equals) among the world's Eastern Orthodox prelates and is regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the world's 300 million Orthodox Christians.
The city was also famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares.

Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

Patriarch of ConstantinoplePatriarchEcumenical Patriarch
It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, currently Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history.

Halki seminary

Theological School of HalkiPatriarchical Academytheological school
Prominent issues in the Ecumenical Patriarchate's policy in the 21st century include the safety of the believers in the Middle East, reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, and the reopening of the Theological School of Halki which was closed down by the Turkish authorities in 1971.
It was the main school of theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church's Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople until the Turkish parliament enacted a law banning private higher education institutions in 1971.

Autocephaly

autocephalousautonomousautonomy
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, ; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fifteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Thus, there developed the pentarchy, i.e. a model of ecclesiastical organization where the universal Church was governed by the primates (patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.

Greece

Greek🇬🇷Greeks
Prior to the moving of the imperial capital, the bishop of Byzantium had been under the authority of the metropolitan of Heraclea, but beginning in the 4th century, he grew to become independent in his own right and even to exercise authority throughout what is now Greece, Asia Minor, Pontus, and Thrace.
Byzantine Emperor Leo III moved the border of the Patriarchate of Constantinople westward and northward in the 8th century.

Russian Orthodox Church

Russian OrthodoxOrthodoxRussian Orthodoxy
The Russian Orthodox Church, which for centuries had been a diocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, declared its independence in 1448, shortly before Constantinople fell, owing to its protest over the Council of Florence, in which representatives of the patriarchate had signed onto union with Rome, trading doctrinal concessions for military aid against the encroaching Ottomans.
The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient Patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.

Exarch

apostolic exarchateapostolic exarchList of Eastern Catholic exarchates
With the development of the hierarchical structure of the Church, the bishop of Constantinople came to be styled as exarch (a position superior to metropolitan).
The Orthodox Church in Bulgaria had now become independent of the Greek-dominated Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Church of Greece

Greek OrthodoxGreek Orthodox ChurchGreek Orthodoxy
In 1833, the Church of Greece declared its autocephaly, which was subsequently recognized by the patriarchate in 1850.
Its canonical territory is confined to the borders of Greece prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 ("Old Greece"), with the rest of Greece (the "New Lands", Crete, and the Dodecanese) being subject to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Bulgarian Exarchate

Bulgarian ExarchistsExarchistBulgarian Church struggle
In 1860 the Bulgarians de facto seceded from the Great Church and in 1870 the Bulgarian church was politically recognized as autonomous under the name Bulgarian Exarchate by the Sultan's firman, although it was not until 1945 that it was recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The Bulgarian Exarchate (Българска екзархия Bǎlgarska ekzarhiya, Bulgar Eksarhlığı) was the official name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church before its autocephaly was recognized by the Ecumenical See in 1945 and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was restored in 1953.

Finnish Orthodox Church

OrthodoxOrthodox Church of FinlandFinland
In addition to these churches, whose territory had been agreed upon by all as within Constantinople's jurisdiction, several other disputed areas' Orthodox churches have had recognition by the Ecumenical Patriarchate as either autocephalous or autonomous, including the Finnish Orthodox Church and Estonian Orthodox Church in 1923, the Polish Orthodox Church in 1924, the Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church in 1998.
The Finnish Orthodox Church (Suomen ortodoksinen kirkko; Finska Ortodoxa Kyrkan), or Orthodox Church of Finland, is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Mount Athos

AthosAthoniteHoly Mountain
Its canonical territory currently includes most of modern Turkey, northern Greece and Mount Athos, the Dodecanese and Crete.
Mount Athos is home to 20 monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

Albanian Orthodox Church

Albanian OrthodoxAlbaniaOrthodox
In 1922, the Albanian Orthodox Church declared its autocephaly, being granted recognition of it in 1937.
The Orthodox population of Albania was integrated into the Patriarchate of Constantinople, with the population of central and south-eastern Albania being under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Orthodox Archbishopric of Ohrid, and the population of south-western Albania being under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Metropolis of Ioannina.

Eastern Orthodox Church

OrthodoxEastern OrthodoxEastern Orthodoxy
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, ; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fifteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
These include the fourteen autocephalous churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Georgia, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Russia, Greece, Poland, Romania, Albania, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which were officially invited to the Pan-Orthodox Council of 2016, the Orthodox Church in America formed in 1970, the autocephalous Orthodox Church of Ukraine created in 2019, as well as a number of autonomous churches.

Bulgarians

Bulgarianethnic BulgarianBulgaria
In 1860 the Bulgarians de facto seceded from the Great Church and in 1870 the Bulgarian church was politically recognized as autonomous under the name Bulgarian Exarchate by the Sultan's firman, although it was not until 1945 that it was recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Mehmed II appointed Gennadios II Scholarios as the Patriarch in 1454 and designated him as the spiritual leader as well as the ethnarch or, in Turkish, milletbashi of all the Orthodox Christians in the Empire, regardless of ethnic origin; not only Greeks, but also Bulgarians, Serbs, Albanians, Wallachians, Moldavians, Croatis, Syrians, orthodox Arabs, Georgians and Lazs came under the spiritual, administrative, fiscal, cultural and legal jurisdiction of the Patriarchate.
It was not until the 1850s when the Bulgarians initiated a purposeful struggle against the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America

(Greek Orthodox)Greek OrthodoxGreek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America
The Orthodox presence in Turkey itself is small; however the majority of Orthodox in North America (about two-thirds) are under the Ecumenical Patriarchate, primarily in the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.
The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquartered in New York City, is an eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Romanian Orthodox Church

Romanian OrthodoxOrthodoxRomanian Orthodoxy
In 1865, the Romanian Orthodox Church, against the protests of Constantinople, declared its independence, which was acknowledged in 1885.
The Orthodox hierarchy in the territory of modern Romania had existed within the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople until 1865 when the Churches in the Romanian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia embarked on the path of ecclesiastical independence by nominating Nifon Rusailă, Metropolitan of Ungro-Wallachia, as the first Romanian primate.

Patriarchate

patriarchatespatriarchalPatriarch
Constantinople was recognized as the fourth patriarchate at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, after Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome.
Five ancient patriarchates of the Pentarchy, headed by patriarchs as the highest-ranking bishops in the Christian Church prior to the Great Schism, were the patriarchates of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.

Polish Orthodox Church

PolandPolish OrthodoxOrthodox
In addition to these churches, whose territory had been agreed upon by all as within Constantinople's jurisdiction, several other disputed areas' Orthodox churches have had recognition by the Ecumenical Patriarchate as either autocephalous or autonomous, including the Finnish Orthodox Church and Estonian Orthodox Church in 1923, the Polish Orthodox Church in 1924, the Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church in 1998.
The loss of ecclesiastical link due to the persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Soviet Union, left the regional clergy in a crisis moment, and in 1924, the Ecumenical Patriarchate took over establishing several autonomous churches on territories of the new states that were formerly wholly or partially part of the Russian Empire (Finland, the Baltic States, and Poland).

Metropolis of Chalcedon

ChalcedonChalcedon, Metropolis ofElder Metropolis of Chalcedon
Elder Metropolis of Chalcedon: Athanasios Papas (2008-)
The Metropolis of Chalcedon is an ecclesiastical territory (diocese) of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Catholic Church

CatholicRoman CatholicRoman Catholicism
Prominent issues in the Ecumenical Patriarchate's policy in the 21st century include the safety of the believers in the Middle East, reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, and the reopening of the Theological School of Halki which was closed down by the Turkish authorities in 1971.
In 451 the Council of Chalcedon, in a canon of disputed validity, elevated the see of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome".

Hagia Irene

Hagia EireneChurch of Hagia IreneHagia Eirene Museum
Some churches were destroyed (e.g. the Church of the Holy Apostles), many were converted into mosques (among them the Hagia Sophia and Chora Church in Constantinople, the Rotunda and Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki) or served for other uses (e.g. Hagia Irene in Constantinople, which became an armory for the Janissaries, and the Gül Mosque (Hagia Theodosia or Christ Euergetes), also in Constantinople, which after the Conquest served for a while as a naval dockyard).
It served as the church of the Patriarchate before Hagia Sophia was completed in 360 under Constantius II.

Laz people

LazLaziLazs
Mehmed II appointed Gennadios II Scholarios as the Patriarch in 1454 and designated him as the spiritual leader as well as the ethnarch or, in Turkish, milletbashi of all the Orthodox Christians in the Empire, regardless of ethnic origin; not only Greeks, but also Bulgarians, Serbs, Albanians, Wallachians, Moldavians, Croatis, Syrians, orthodox Arabs, Georgians and Lazs came under the spiritual, administrative, fiscal, cultural and legal jurisdiction of the Patriarchate.
Local orthodox inhabitants, once subordinated to the Georgian Orthodox Church, had to obey Patriarchate of Constantinople, thus gradually becoming Greeks, the process known as Hellenization of Laz people.

Rûm

RumRūmRoman
Must also be pointed out that such rules, very strict in the beginning, with time and the increasing importance reached in the Ottoman Empire by the Rûm Millet, were more and more disregarded, so that in the 19th century in Istanbul there was a veritable building boom of Orthodox churches, many among them having high bell towers and brick domes, which previously were both strictly prohibited.
more generally, to Greek Orthodox constituents of the Ottoman Empire and later citizens of Turkey (Rûmi or Rûm in the broader sense, through this use is disappearing with the quasi-extinction of Greek communities in Izmir, Istanbul, Cappadocia, and the Black Sea coast)

Marmara Ereğlisi

HeracleaPerinthosPerinthus
Prior to the moving of the imperial capital, the bishop of Byzantium had been under the authority of the metropolitan of Heraclea, but beginning in the 4th century, he grew to become independent in his own right and even to exercise authority throughout what is now Greece, Asia Minor, Pontus, and Thrace.
Today it is only a titular "Elder Metropolis and Exarchate of Thrace" of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta

Archdiocese of Italy and Malta and Exarchate of Southern EuropeGreek OrthodoxGreek Orthodox Archdiocese of Austria and Exarchate of Italy
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Melite and Exarchate of Southern Europe (Venice) : Gennadios (Tsabikos) Zervos (1996-)
The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta and Exarchate of Southern Europe is a diocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople with see in Venice.